From Big Medical Encyclopedia

CTAHOBKA in p \c and x about l of o-

of and and — ready condition, predispositions of the person to performance of a certain type of activity. At. it is caused by previous experience and it is shown as the factor having significant effect on implementation of different types of activity of the subject.

The concept «installation» was entered by Spencer (N. Spencer) in 1862 by consideration of problems of social psychology. Into the general psychology this concept was entered in 1889 Müller (G. E. Muller) and F. Schumann, to-rye showed that after repeated lifting of a heavy subject easier subject seems easier, than is actually, and, on the contrary, after repeated lifting of easier subject heavier seems heavier, than it is actually. Earlier, in 1888 the German psychologist L. Lange found out that time of reaction to an external irritant depends on what the attention of the examinee is directed to. If inspected is concentrated on the movement, then time of reaction is shorter, than in that case when it is concentrated on perception of an incentive. Further in experiments on studying of memory it was proved that storing of the offered material depends on the instruction, to-ruyu the examinee receives. On the basis of these and experiments similar to them in psychology there was an idea of a phenomenon At., which is that previous experience, the instruction or understanding of a task «identify» the personality on performance of this or that action. In physiological researches the processes which are the cornerstone At., are fullestly studied in the analysis of the nature of motivations (see).

The data obtained during the studying At., promoted deeper understanding of mechanisms of mental activity of the person and showed that implementation of a conscious activity depends on factors, to-rye are not presented in consciousness of the individual at present. They can be studied only indirectly — on the impact exerted on consciousness and behavior of the person.

In the Soviet psychology the theory At. D. N. Uznadze was developed and used for the solution of the main problems of the general and social psychology, and also for judgment and pilot study of unconscious mental processes. At the description At. apply such signs as its differentiation — an irradiirovannost, excitability — durability, dynamism — static character, plasticity — roughness, a konstantnost — variability, etc. According to D. N. Uznadze's concept, allocate two main types of installation — urgent and fixed. Urgent At. reflects readiness, a mood of the individual on implementation of the requirement which arose at present time and in this situation. In case of repeated repetition of a similar situation available at the same time urgent At. is fixed, and on its basis forms fixed At., in which last experience as if accumulates. Fixed At. plays an essential role in the course of formation of the highest social needs of the person, including in valuable orientation of the personality.

To system fixed At. it is possible to refer also the installations influencing the attitude of certain people towards the state of health and a disease. These At. in some cases define character of complaints of the patient, extramental aspiration to exaggerate or underestimate really available symptomatology of a disease. In psychotherapeutic practice idea of existence at a number of patients was created At. on a disease. In the presence At. on a disease, but not on recovery, the patient sharply is negative to the message of the doctor on objectively occurred improvement of the state of health, has at the same time resentment and mistrust. Existence unequal At. it is possible to explain various influence of the same environmental factors on emergence patol. processes at different people. So, e.g., the same psychoinjuring situation can cause a condition of an emotional stress in one persons and to leave indifferent others. At. plays an essential role in quite often observed fixing of the patient on these or those painful symptoms. Psychotherapeutic influence to a large extent depends on the attitude of the patient towards the doctor, a cut can be both positive, and negative that has significant effect on results of treatment. This relation forms under the influence of such factors as the general assessment by the patient of the level of development of medicine, its achievements, idea of the patient of the level of medical care, to-ruyu it receives in this or that medical establishment, opinion on a moral appearance and professional qualities of this or that doctor, etc. Therefore quality of medical care is defined not only technical equipment to lay down. institutions, but also its prestige, degree of the humane relation of personnel to sick and a number of other factors creating positive At. the patient in relation to the doctor.

The fixed installations at patients with different forms of diseases proceed peculiar and exert specific impact on course of separate mental processes that can be used for differential diagnosis of a number of nervous and mental diseases.

Bibliography: Andreyeva G. M. With

tsialny psychology, M., 1980; Asmo-l about in A. G. Activity and installation, M., 1979; Unconscious: The nature, functions, methods of a research, under the editorship of

A.S. Prangishvili, etc., t. 1 — 3, Tbilisi, 1978; Bzhalava I. T. Installation and mechanisms of a brain, Tbilisi, 1971; N and d and r and sh in and l and Sh. A. Ponyatiye of installation in the general and social psychology, Tbilisi, 1974; Prangishvili A. S. Researches on psychology of installation, Tbilisi, 1967; Uznadze D. N. Experimental fundamentals of psychology of installation, Tbilisi, 1961; Shingarov G. of X. Theory of reflection and conditioned reflex, page 232, M., 1974;

Pilot studies on psychology of installation, under the editorship of A.S. Prangishvili and 3. I. Hodzhava, Tbilisi, 1958.

Of X. Shingarov.