INFRARED RADIATION (IK-radiation, IK-beams) — the area of electromagnetic radiation which is in range between the long-wave site of red visible light (0,74 microns) and a short-wave radio emission (2000 microns). And. and. usually subdivide into near area (from 0,74 to 2,5 microns), average (2,5 — 50 microns) and far (50 — 2000 microns). In usual conditions of eyes of the person does not see And. and., however there are devices turning And. and. in the visible radiation (so-called devices of «night» vision). To the same purpose serves special methods of photography. And. and. found broad application in medical practice.
Sources And. and. filament lamps, a coal electric arch, radiators from nichrom and other alloys, various gas-discharge lamps serve. Radiation of a row lasers (see) also is in infrared range. Solar radiation almost for 50% consists from And. and. In the terrestrial atmosphere And. and. most intensively absorb water molecules, carbon dioxide gas and ozone. Pollution of the atmosphere leads to a delay And. and. lands and to development of so-called greenhouse effect. Some animals — yamkogolovy snakes, insects (cockroaches, grasshoppers, etc.) possess the highly sensitive receptors perceiving I.i.
And. and. for the first time it is revealed the English scientist F. W. Herschel in 1800. Range And. and. depending on a source can be discrete (to consist of separate lines) or continuous. Infrared radiation spectrums of the excited atoms are line, corresponding to separate electronic transitions; intermediate between line and continuous spectrums — so-called striped ranges of the excited molecules are caused by their oscillating and rotary motion. Heated bodies in strong and liquid state radiate a continuous infrared spectrum.
The research of oscillatory and rotary infrared ranges is conducted for qualitative and quantification of mixes of various substances, for definition of chemical structure and structure of various molecules, including polymers and such biologically important connections as amino acids, carbohydrates, hormones, lipids and proteins. Distinctions in absorption and dispersion And. and., a visible and ultraviolet light are widely used for identification similar on color, but substances, various on structure, and for detection of invisible and badly visible objects in the infrared photo, aerial photograph, defectoscopy etc.
And. and. is the environmental factor which is continuously operating on a human body. The body of the person constantly radiates and absorbs infrared beams (radiation heat exchange). Dominance of processes of absorption over processes of radiation can bring to to overheating of an organism (see) and to development thermal shock (see). Limits of portability person I. and. make 1,33 — 1,79 kal/cm 2 (depending on wavelength And. and.).
Termografiya (see) and an infraskopiya — the methods based on registration of intensity And. and. — are the valuable diagnostic means applied in the ophthalmology, dermatology, and also for definition of localization which are deeply located in an organism of inflammatory processes. The infrared equipment is used also in forensic medicine at photography of material evidences, identification of traces of a shot, detection of carboxyhaemoglobin in blood etc.
Infrared radiation in physical therapy. Action And. and. on the person it is caused by his heat effect. Temperature increase as a result of absorption And. and. fabrics causes reactions local (a hyperemia, increase in permeability of vessels) and the general character (an intensification of exchange, thermal control etc.).
Under action And. and. on site radiations a number of physiologically active agents (e.g., acetylcholine is formed, etc.) which come to the general circle of blood circulation, cause strengthening of exchange processes in fabrics and bodies, remote from the place of radiation.
Reaction of an organism to action And. and. depends on the power of radiation, exposure, size of the irradiated surface, localization of influence, etc. On skin under influence And. and. a certain intensity in a few minutes after radiation there is a hyperemia remaining after the end of radiation up to 60 — 90 min. more rare longer. And. and. improves blood circulation in fabrics that leads to normalization of food of fabrics, acceleration of regenerative processes. Under influence And. and. the functional condition of receptors of skin changes: the threshold thermal raises and sensation of pain, the threshold of tactile sensitivity goes down. Moderate exposure doses have soothing effect, under the influence of heat the tone of muscles decreases.
The general reaction of an organism on And. and. it is expressed in redistribution of blood in vessels, increase in number of eosinophils (against the background of the general reduction of number of leukocytes) in peripheral blood, acceleration of ROE, increase in processes of a metabolism. Radiation And. and. reflexogenic zones causes vasodilatation, acceleration krovo-and a lymph flow not only in a zone of influence, but also in internals (kidneys, a stomach, intestines).
And. and. has the normalizing effect on functions of a stomach, pancreas, kidneys, stimulates immunogene properties of an organism and it can be used for increase in the general body resistance.
At animals under influence And. and. there is a weakening of anaphylactic reaction, the spasms caused by effect of strychnine, and also effect of curarization.
Therapy And. and. it is combined using ultraviolet radiation (see), electroprocedures of non-thermal action (direct and impulse currents), physiotherapy exercises (see) and massage (see) it is also not carried out with simultaneous use of other thermal procedures.
With to lay down. the purpose uses the following sources And. and.: 1) the infrared radiator on a support (fig. 1), is a source of radiation in Krom the thread from nichrom which is reeled up on the ceramic basis; 2) lamp sollyuks: stationary (fig. 2), figurative and desktop, with power from 200 to 1000 W. The radiation spectrum of a lamp sollyuks consists of 88 — 90% of infrared beams and 10 — 12% of visible radiation; 3) a lamp of Menin (fig. 3) with the electric filament lamp in 40 — 80 W which is built in in the parabolic reflector fixed on the wooden handle; 4) the local electrolight bathtub (fig. 4) representing a wooden or metal framework on an inner surface to-rogo place from 8 to 16 usual filament lamps. In such bathtubs the body of the patient is affected by several factors: And. and., the visible radiation and the air heated to t ° 70 °.
Before the procedure on the patient put on light-protective glasses. The electrolight bathtub is established over a naked body part. The procedure is carried out in position of the patient lying on a couch (at radiation of legs or trunks) or sitting (at impact on upper extremities). The bathtub together with the irradiated body part is covered with a sheet, and then a blanket. The distance from a source of radiation depends on a look and the power of a lamp: during the use of stationary devices — 50 — 100 cm, figurative and desktop — 15 — 50 cm. Duration of influence is 15 — 30 min. Radiation is carried out daily or every other day, on a course of treatment prior to 20 — 25 procedures.
Upon termination of the procedure rest of 20 — 30 min., and after reception of an electrolight bathtub rubdown or a warm shower with the subsequent rest is recommended.
Indications: subacute and hron, inflammatory diseases of a nasopharynx and upper respiratory tracts, skin and hypodermic cellulose, internals (gastritis, pneumonia, glomerulonephritis, nephrosis, etc.), joints, backbone, muscles and peripheral nerves, burns, freezing injuries, contractures, spastic paralyzes of extremities, obliterating endarteritis (easy and medium-weight forms).
Contraindications: acute and purulent inflammatory processes, new growths, cardiovascular insufficiency of the II—III degree, bleeding or bent to it.
Use of infrared radiation in forensic medical examination
Distinctions of scattering coefficients, reflections and transmissions of bodies in visible and And. and. caused a possibility of use And. and. in court. - medical examination. And. and. it is used at a research of material evidences for identification on dark fabrics of clothes of localization and a form of traces of blood, a soot, not burned down grains of gunpowder, for establishment from what distance the shot, is made for identification of entrance and output openings of the fire channel, and also at examination of a corpse for detection of the traces of a close shot on it (a soot, grains of gunpowder, a print of a dulny cut) covered with blood (fig. 5) for identification invisible by a naked eye of putrefactive network, detection of carboxyhaemoglobin in blood at poisoning with carbon monoxide. At inspection of the living persons PI. and. apply to detection of the latent bruises, hypodermic network of blood vessels.
Research using And. and. it is carried out by photography, photometry with use of the absorbing molecular analysis and electron-optical converters. Shooting in infrared beams is carried out by ordinary cameras and microcameras mounting on materials Infrakhr (in the range from 700 to 1200 nanometers) with use of the light filters cutting visible beams and passing And. and.
In necessary cases (sexing of the person on his hair, at the proof of the fact of burning of a corpse etc.) apply infrared spektrofotometriya (see). Also other methods and devices of infrared range, in particular «the infrared thermoprobe» are used, with the help to-rogo a research it is conducted in the range up to 3000 by it and with automatic registration of the obtained data on the screen of the electron-optical converter.
Bibliography: Bogdanov F. R., Rokityansky V. N. and Fi of legs of e-N about in G. H. Physical methods of treatment in traumatology and orthopedics, page 25, Kiev, 1970, bibliogr.; Vail Yu. S. and Baranovsky Ya. M. Infrared beams in clinical diagnosis and medicobiological researches, L., 1969, bibliogr.; Dekhant Y., etc. Infrared spectroscopy of polymers, the lane with it., M., 1976, bibliogr.; To and p.-kovsky M. A. and Shpektoro-v and R. A. K to a question of use of the combined uv and infrared radiation for treatment of diseases of skin, Vestn, dermas, and veins., No. 11, page 28, 1968; Kozelkin V. V. and At with about l of ý-c of e in I. F. Bases of the infrared equipment, M., 1967; Liventsev H. M and Livenson A. R. Electromedical equipment, M., 1974; About r l about in G. A. and N. S. Issledovaniye's Eagles of infrared radiation at inflammatory diseases of abdominal organs, Klin, hir., No. 9, page 21, 1972; T ah o-G about d and X. M. A grant on bases of the scientific photo in forensic medicine, M., 1965, bibliogr.
I. N. Stadnichuk; N. A. Vladimirova (fi-zioter.), Takho-Godi Haji Murat (court. - medical).