INFIRMARY — the military medical institution providing hospitalization of the wounded and patients who are not needing long treatment and difficult diagnostic and specialized medical actions. L. it is created at separate military garrisons, in military units and by the ships.
For the first time L. appeared in the Middle Ages — shelters for patients with leprosy who were created by the monastic order of St. Lazar which devoted itself to leaving for leprous (in the Western European countries leprosy was called St. Lazar's disease) so were called. In Russia with expansion at the beginning of 18 century of regular army and organizational and regular registration of military-medical service terms «infirmary» and «hospital» were used for designation of the same military to lay down. institutions; division of these concepts happened only in 19 century. In 19 and the beginning of 20 century in military department of Russia L were allocated. peace time (army and local) and military (army and divisional). Army L. were established at bodies and military institutions (at the rate of 3 places on 100 people of the military personnel) it is preferential where there was no local L. or hospitals. Army L. took place in residential buildings or in tents and intended for rendering to wounded and patients of the first medical assistance. In wartime during fight army L. turned into the advanced dressing point. In some Guards regiments the strengthened L were established. with a capacity up to 200 places. Local L. (with a capacity up to 350 places) opened at reserve and spare parts of troops, and also at institutions of military department. They accepted patients from bodies at which were developed, from other nearby parts which did not have the regular L., and the passing teams. Divisional L. intended for expansion in fight of the main dressing points and also participated in evacuation of wounded and patients from parts of a division. In World War I floating L were created. (20 beds). So the vessels of medical purpose of small capacity providing groups of the ships of the small tonnage at their basing on unprepared sites of the coast or on islands were called.
In the Soviet Army and the Navy garrison, divisional L are created., L. first-aid posts of bodies, basic and ship.
Garrison infirmary — the treatment and prevention facility of hospital type of the Soviet Army and Navy developed in military garrisons, small on number; in it rendering the qualified medical aid, stationary and out-patient treatment of patients is provided.
Doctors of garrison L. give also help to medical service of bodies of garrison in the organization of medical and scheduled maintenance.
The divisional infirmary is developed in peace time in connections. Tasks and volume of work of divisional L. same, as well as garrison.
The infirmary of medical aid station of a body provides inspection and treatment of the patients who are not demanding carrying out difficult diagnostic methods of inspection and prolonged treatment, and also temporary isolation inf. patients before their evacuation in inf. departments of hospitals.
Basic infirmary — stationary to lay down. the Navy institution developed for providing small garrisons in the remote (isolated) stationing sites of the fleet; provides rendering the qualified medical care.
Ship infirmary — the functional division of a first-aid post of the ship intended for the patients needing hospitalization and isolation. The volume of the rendered medical aid — from the first medical to qualified that depends on organizational and regular structure (type) of the ship.
A. A. Balmasov.