INFILTRATION (Latin in in + filtratio filtering) — penetration into fabrics and accumulation in them of cellular elements, liquids and various chemicals. And. can carry active (cellular And. at an inflammation, tumoral growth) or passive character (treatment of fabrics the anesthetizing solutions).
Accumulation of cellular elements in fabrics and bodies carries the name of infiltrate; the blood plasma which is coming out vessels and a lymph takes part in its education at an inflammation along with uniform elements. Treatment of fabrics biol, liquids without impurity of cellular elements, napr, blood plasma, bile, is designated by terms swelled (see), imbibition (see).
And. as normal fiziol, process takes place at a differentiation of some fabrics and bodies, e.g. And. lymphoid cells of a reticular basis of body during the formation of a thymus, limf, nodes.
At patol. And. cells of an inflammatory origin — inflammatory And. (see. Inflammation ) — infiltrates from polymorphonuclear leukocytes, lymphoid (kruglokletochny), macrophagic, eosinophilic, hemorrhagic, etc. take place. Often fabrics happen infiltrirovana cells of a new growth (cancer, sarcoma); in such cases speak about And. fabrics a tumor, about the infiltrative growth of a tumor. Patol. And. it is characterized by increase in volume of fabrics, their increased density, sometimes morbidity (inflammatory And.), and also discoloration of fabrics: And. polymorphonuclear leukocytes gives to fabrics a gray-green shade, lymphocytes — pale gray, erythrocytes — red etc.
The outcome of cellular infiltrates is various and depends on the nature of process and cellular composition of infiltrate. E.g., in leukocytic inflammatory infiltrates the proteolytic substances appearing at release of lizosomalny enzymes of polymorphonuclear leukocytes often cause fusion of infiltrirovanny fabrics and development abscess (see) or phlegmons (see); cells of infiltrates from polymorphonuclear leukocytes partially migrate from a blood flow, partially break up, partially go for creation of new fabric elements. And. cells of tumors involves an atrophy or destruction of the preexisting fabric. And. with considerable destructive changes of fabrics further most often gives resistant patol. changes in a look sclerosis (see), decreases or losses of function of fabrics or bodies. Friable, skoroprekhodyashchy (e.g., ostrovospalitelny) infiltrates usually resolve and do not leave noticeable marks.
Lymphoid (kruglokletochny), lymphocytic plazmokletochnye and macrophagic infiltrates in most cases are expression hron, inflammatory processes in fabrics. Against the background of such infiltrates often there are sclerous changes. They can be observed also at some disturbances of fabric exchange, napr, in a stroma of a thyroid gland at a diffusion toxic craw (see. Craw diffusion toxic ), addisonovy disease (see), at atrophic changes of a parenchyma of various bodies as the initial regenerative act of elements of connecting fabric of body. The same infiltrates can serve as expression of extramedullary processes of a hemopoiesis, napr, lymphocytic infiltrates and lymphoma in various bodies at a lymphadenosis (see. Leukoses ), in initial stages of reticuloses. In certain cases kruglokletochny infiltrates cannot be considered as patol. process: the cells of infiltrate which are externally reminding lymphocytes are young forms of the developing sympathetic nervous system. Groups of sympathogonias in medullary substance of adrenal glands are that, e.g. Limfotsitarnoplazmokletochny and macrophagic infiltrates can be observed in bodies and fabrics at various immunol, shifts in an organism (artificial and natural immunization, allergic immunopatol. processes and allergic diseases). Emergence of limfotsitarnoplazmatichesky infiltrates is reflection of the process of development of antibodies which is carried out by plasmocytes which predecessors are V-lymphocytes, with the participation of macrophages.
From And. by chemical substances it is most extended And. glycogen and lipids. And. by a glycogen of an epithelium of nephronic loops (Henle's loops), hepatocytes, epidermis of skin it is observed at diabetes and at a so-called glikogenovy disease (see. Glycogenoses ), at a cut plentiful deposits of a glycogen in a liver, cross-striped muscles, a myocardium, an epithelium of gyrose tubules of kidneys, sometimes components to 10% of weight of body take place. And. lipids can concern neutral fats, napr, fatty And. a liver (with increase in amount of fat up to 30% of weight of body). However not always emergence of visible fat in cells of parenchymatous bodies speaks about infiltration. Decomposition of amine and belkovolipidny complexes of cytoplasm can take place, but the structure of lipids at the same time will be other: mix of phospholipids, cholesterol and its ester, neutral fats. And. intimas of arteries by cholesterol it is observed at atherosclerosis (see). And. lipids of reticuloendothelial system arises as manifestation of a fermentopatiya.
At a pulmonary tuberculosis it is observed gelatinous And. (gelatinous, or smooth, pneumonia), representing one of manifestations of exudative reaction at a pulmonary tuberculosis, tubercular pneumonia of lobulyarny, is more rare than lobar character and often being a prestage of caseous pneumonia; sometimes it arises as perifocal process around productive tuberculous focuses (see. Tuberculosis of a respiratory organs ).
Bibliography: Davydovsky I. V. General pathology of the person, M., 1969; In ii with h n e of F. Allgemeine Pathologie und Atiologie, Miinchen u. a., 1975.
I. V. Davydovsky.