INFECTIOUS DISEASES as discipline — the clinical discipline studying an etiology, a pathogeny, a current, the principles, methods of treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. And. are closely connected with internal diseases (I eat.) and others a wedge, disciplines, with epidemiology (see), microbiology (see), virology (see), immunology (see), biochemistry (see), molecular biology (see), pathological physiology (see), pathological anatomy (see), pharmacology (see) etc.
Before Great October socialist revolution to teaching And. the insufficient attention was paid. At the same time long before opening of departments I. separate infectious diseases were studied it is aware of therapy. E.g., in 1771 S. G. Zybelin during epidemic showed to students of patients with plague. Heading department of private pathology and therapy Moscow un-that, M. Ya. Mudroye paid much attention And. The first of eight classes included all feverish diseases in its classifications of diseases.
Allocation And. as discipline it was caused by achievements of bacteriology, development of the doctrine about infectious diseases that predetermined creation of independent departments I. Such department was for the first time created in 1894 in Army medical college, S. S. Botkin, and in the subsequent N. Ya. Chistovich, N. K. Rosenberg, N. I. Ragoza, etc. headed it. Since 1902 on medical f-those Moscow un-that privat-associate professor's courses were organized on And., which were conducted by K. F. Crapes, and then M. P. Kireev.
In May, 1924 according to S. I. Zlatogorov and K. T. Glukhov's report the VIII All-Russian congress of bacteriologists, epidemiologists and a dignity. doctors decided to create departments I. with clinics and laboratories on all medical f-takh and in in-ta of the country. Teaching And. specialization and improvement on courses and f-takh improvements of doctors is conducted on the IV—VI courses, and.
In the higher education institutions having a dignity. - gigabyte. f-you, as a rule, to a dress about departments I. there are independent departments of epidemiology; on to lay down. f-takh teaching a course of epidemiology is conducted by departments I.
Great value for improvement of knowledge on And. had works: «Course of clinic of internal diseases» (1867 and 1868) and «Clinical lectures» (1885) S. P. Botkin; «Clinical lectures in 1884 — 1885.» A. A. Ostroumova; «Semiotics and diagnosis of children's diseases» (1890) N. F. Filatov; «the Course of private pathology and therapy of internal diseases» (1922) N. Ya. Chistovich, and from the translated editions «Textbook of Private Pathology and Therapy of Internal Diseases» (1883 — 1884) of A. Shtryumpell and «Infectious diseases» in two volumes (1914) F. Krauss and T. Brugsh. In Soviet period «Infectious diseases with fundamentals of epidemiology» (1934)
N. K. Rosenberg, «A course of infectious diseases» (1932 and 1935) are published under the editorship of S. I. Zlatogorov and D. D. Pletnev, «Textbook of infectious diseases» (1940) M. G. Danilevich, «Course of acute infectious diseases» (1951) G. A. Ivashentsova. In teaching And. such textbooks as «Infectious diseases» (1956) of A. F. Bilibin and K. V. Bunin, «Infectious diseases» (1962) of A. F. Bilibin, «Infectious diseases» under the editorial office E are used. P. Shuvalova (1976), etc. Also several managements are published: «The guide to infectious diseases» in two volumes under the editorship of A. F. Bilibin and G. P. Rudnev (1962 — 1967), «The guide to infectious diseases» under V. I. Pokrovsky's edition and To. M. Mullet (1977), etc.
And. as the modern discipline is characterized by the fact that it was enriched with achievements of related subjects (therapy, cardiology, biochemistry, morphology, virology, immunology, pharmacology, epidemiology, etc.), including a number of new methods of tool and laboratory researches. Many questions of a pathogeny and treatment received new lighting And. The immunotherapy, a role of intoxication, immunity and an allergy is widely studied. In differential diagnosis And. use of the COMPUTER extends.
Also further specialization of discipline continues. E.g., nurseries were approved as the independent section And. with specialization of doctors on pediatric f-takh and advanced training courses of doctors.
In the conditions of a socialist system of achievement of the Soviet health care allowed to liquidate mass distribution of a row nozol, forms, to achieve falloff of incidence And. and failures. The system of fight against infectious diseases developed in the USSR found the world recognition and is used in the international practice.
Problems I. are covered in monographs, thematic collections, in periodicals (magazines «Antibiotiki», «Voprosy virusologii», «Klinicheskaya meditsina», «Laboratornoye delo», «Zhurnal mikrobiologii, epidemiologii i immunobiologii», «Meditsinskaya parazitologiya i parazitarnye bolezni», «Pediatriya», «Sovetskaya meditsina», «Terapevtichesky arkhiv», etc.). In 1972 it is created All-Union scientific about-in infectiologists (VNOI); before infectiologists were a part of All-Union science foundation of microbiologists, epidemiologists and infectiologists of I. I. Mechnikov.
Studying And. in the USSR it is conducted also by network of scientific research institute and laboratories. Research is carried out by collectives Central in-that epidemiology of M3 of the USSR, Ying-that infectious diseases of M3 of USSR, Ying-that virology of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences of I. D. Ivanovsky, Ying-that epidemiology and microbiology of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences of N. F. Gamaley, Ying-that microbiology and epidemiology of M3 of RSFSR, Leningrad Ying-that epidemiology, microbiology and hygiene of Pasteur and Ying-that children's infections of M3 of RSFSR, scientific research institute of federal republics and departments of higher education institutions and in-t of improvement of doctors.
Bibliography: see bibliogr, to St. Infectious diseases .
V. I. Pokrovsky.