From Big Medical Encyclopedia

INFECTIOUS ALLERGY (late lat. infectio infection; an allergy) — hypersensitivity of an organism to activators of infectious and invasive processes, and also to products of their life activity. And. and. various degree it is characteristic practically of all infectious, including virus, diseases, except some acute toxicoses; for the focal infections caused by eurysynusic microbes; for parasitic diseases. In certain conditions and microflora, vegetans usually on skin and mucous membranes, can also be the reason of development And. and.

For the first time And. and. in the form of inflammatory reaction it is described by R. Koch. A big contribution to development of the doctrine about And. and. brought To. Tuberculine test, B. Shik, Vaughan (W. T. Vaughan), etc. From domestic scientists in the area I. and. A. A. Bogomolets, H worked hard N. F. Gamaley. N. Sirotinin, I. L. Krichevsky, A. D. Ado, N. F. Zdrodovsky, To. V. Bunin, etc.

Types of hypersensitivity at an infectious allergy.

At And. and. various types of the hypersensitivity (H) can develop. In an experiment to microbic allergens PCh I of type (anaphylactic, immediate), by PCh III of type (like Artyus's phenomenon), PCh IV of type is received (slowed down). PCh of immediate type develops at introduction of large amounts of lizirovanny antigens, especially subcutaneously, intravenously, intraperitoneally. Artyus PCh develops at repeated hypodermic introduction of high doses of lizirovanny microbic antigens (see. Artyusa phenomenon ).

PCh of the slowed-down type forms at infection of an organism with live bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, fungi, the elementary. In an experiment it can be received also to the killed microbes and their fractions; it is for this purpose better to use integral cells (but not lizirovanny antigens) which enter into skin, into small pillows of pads, in limf, nodes of various animals.

Allergic reactions at the PCh various types which are found at And. and., as well as allergic reactions to not microbic allergens, have immunol., patokhy. and patofiziol, phases of development (see. Allergy ).

In an experiment it is established that at a simultaneous sensitization in two different ways (see. Sensitization ) it is possible to receive at the same animal PCh of the slowed-down and immediate type. However at a consecutive sensitization the PCh that type which appears the first prevails.

On the basis of experimental data the reasons of development of PCh of the slowed-down or immediate type are clear at And. and. at the person. Infection with live microbes which mostly get in limf, nodes, leads to development by the expressed PCh of the slowed-down type. Further, napr, at formation of tubercular cavities or congestive abscesses, absorption of large amounts of the lizirovanny antigens which are formed owing to disintegration of microbes is possible i.e. the conditions necessary for development of PCh of immediate type are created. However against the background of earlier formed PCh of the slowed-down type the sensitization on immediate type does not develop therefore at various hron, infectious diseases (tuberculosis, a brucellosis, a leprosy) PCh of immediate type almost does not occur at patients.

Other conditions are created when implementation of microbes is followed by their considerable disintegration, napr, at a furunculosis. The sensitization in this case occurs at the same time on two types: live microbes and products of their disintegration which are soaking up in significant amounts. At such patients it is possible to determine existence of PCh as which are slowed down, and immediate types, napr, a sensitization by allergens of staphylococcus.

When microbes do not get into fabrics, but in enough products of their lysis (e.g. are formed, at cholecystitis, antritis), there can be only PCh of immediate type, in clinic a cut such manifestations of an imediate-type allergy as dominate small tortoiseshell (see), a Quincke's edema (see. Quincke hypostasis ).

At invasions of pattern of development of this or that PCh type a bit differents. At an intracellular arrangement of parasites (a leushmania, toxoplasma) PCh of the slowed-down type is characteristic. Probably, those parasites who because of the size (more than 15 — 20 microns) cannot be exposed to phagocytosis in a live look (especially helminths), cause development of PCh of immediate type as a result of absorption of lizirovanny decomposition products and exchange and their subsequent action on immunological competent cells.

The role of an allergy in a pathogeny of infectious diseases

Can be allocated four extents of participation of an allergy in mechanisms of development of infectious diseases.

I. The allergic mechanism is the leader in a pathogeny of a disease. This group of infectious diseases call infek-tsionno-allergic. Here not numerous acute infectious diseases which cornerstone the giperergichesky inflammation, and all hron, infections is belong: tuberculosis, brucellosis, tuberculoid leprosy, actinomycosis, Coccidioidosis, hron, candidiases, syphilis, frambeziya, rheumatism, etc. Not only virulent, but also conditionally pathogenic microbes have the sensibilizing properties. Among them staphylococcus, streptococci, a neysseriya, colibacillus and other eurysynusic microbes and fungi (Candida) are the most frequent reason of a sensitization. As a rule, the disease develops because of a sensitization the microbes which are in hron, the inflammatory centers. The microbic etiology in these cases is confirmed not only positive skin tests, but also an exacerbation of a disease after statement of such tests.

Some acute infectious diseases, especially whooping cough, flu, mycoplasmal pneumonia, can activate microflora in the centers hron, infections and to cause an aggravation or even developing of infectious and allergic diseases — bronchial asthma, microbic rhinitises. The same complications are sometimes observed as a result of preventive inoculations by live vaccines. The mechanism of their development can be various: adjuvant activity (see. Adjuvants, adjuvant disease ), sensitization of an organism to a histamine, creation of conditions for reproduction of banal microflora.

Causative agents of infections can cause also development of autoallergichesky or autoimmune diseases (see. Autoallergichesky diseases ).

II. The allergic component has no crucial importance in a pathogeny acute infectious diseases, but easily comes to light clinically by means of datas of laboratory and by results gistol, researches. Here almost all acute infectious diseases behind not numerous exception of those, morfol which basis is made by a pronounced giperergichesky inflammation belong (scarlet fever, an ugly face, erizipeloid, a tularemia). Allergy tests at them usually become positive when the diagnosis does not represent doubts any more.

III. The allergy does not play an essential role in a pathogeny infectious diseases since does not manage to develop, napr, at botulism, cholera.

IV. Allergic reactions (a medicinal allergy, a serum disease) accumulate on the course of an infectious disease. These reactions have not a direct bearing on a pathogeny of a basic disease, but can cause heavy complications. E.g., the frequency and weight of allergic reactions to the antibiotics applied to treatment of infectious diseases increases; use to lay down. serums it is connected with administration of the strongest allergens (animal protein), the frequency of development of a serum disease at the same time reaches 20 — 30%.

Some features of infectious and allergic diseases.

Infectious and allergic diseases are characterized by a number of the general signs:

1. In a basis morfol, changes formation of cellular infiltrates (granulomas) lies.

2. No postponed diseases, preventive vaccination of live vaccines give reliable lifelong immunity.

3. The activator has tendency to an intracellular arrangement that defines development of PCh of the slowed-down type (e.g., at a toxoplasmosis, a visceral leushmaniosis, histoplasmosis, a leprosy, a brucellosis etc.). Perhaps, at the same time a paramount role is played by education L-forms of bacteria (see) that is already proved concerning a brucellosis, tuberculosis.

4. The majority of infectious and allergic diseases has hron, a current (years, decades, and sometimes and for life): tuberculosis, tuberculoid leprosy, actinomycosis, syphilis, frambeziya, etc.

5. Hron, infectious and allergic diseases differ in polymorphism of clinic. Often they begin with any limited center (tuberculosis, histoplasmosis, syphilis, a tularemia, etc.), and sometimes this «primary affect» and is not observed, quickly there occurs generalization (brucellosis). Anyway further perhaps big variety of defeats on prevalence and localization: the septic and disseminated forms isolated or multiple, sharply proceeding or hron, defeats of a musculoskeletal system, internals, a nervous system are possible.

6. Alternation of the periods relative a wedge, wellbeing and aggravations is characteristic of the majority of diseases; quite often wavy current, a recurrence after imaginary treatment.

7. Emergence of latent forms, napr, tuberculosis, a brucellosis, histoplasmosis when in the presence of the activator in an organism the clinic of a disease is absent is characteristic.

8. The condition of unstable equilibrium between a human body and a microbe leads to the fact that on the current hron, infections the great influence is exerted by conditions of food, a vitamin deficiency, impact of cooling, overheating, an injury, pregnancy and so forth.

The course of infectious and allergic diseases depends on reactivity of an organism.

The following options of reactivity defined by skin tests and other methods of a research are possible:

a) areactivity and hyporeactivity: skin tests are negative or poorly expressed, intravenous administration of a vaccine causes poorly expressed general reaction; areactivity most often meets in an end-stage of a disease; at hyporeactivity disease sluggish, without the expressed allergic defeats, but persistent, long, with long subfebrile condition, the expressed functional changes from a nervous system;

b) «normoreaktivnost»: skin tests clearly are expressed, in vitro tests well reveal a condition of PCh of the slowed-down type; a wedge, a current rather favorable with various manifestations of allergic inflammatory defeats; vaccinotherapy gives positive effect;

c) hyperreactivity: at statement of skin tests heavy general reaction with limfangiity, rise in temperature, focal reactions; locally necrotic changes prevail heavy inflammatory, sometimes; the specific immunotherapy at hyperreactivity causes heavy responses and is not shown.

It is necessary to distinguish allergic diseases which reason nonpathogenic microbes and products of their life activity are and which do not cause in people of infectious process from infectious and allergic diseases. They proceed as the usual allergic diseases caused by allergens of not microbic origin. It is possible to give an allergy to antibiotics of a microbic origin as an example, to-ruyu carry to a medicinal allergy. In a number of the countries detergents with additive of the proteolytic enzymes received from Bacillus subtilis were widely adopted; at the workers producing detergents with these high-allergenic additives and at the persons using powders development of bronchial asthma and other allergic diseases is described.

Attacks of bronchial asthma can cause mold fungi and their controversy as inhalation allergens. Barmy fungi in certain cases play a role of a food-borne allergen.

In case of «the easy farmer» (see. Pneumonia, alveolites exogenous allergic ) inhalation of the thermophilic actinomycetes which are contained in rotten hay is an etiology. At the same time the sensitization as Artyus's phenomenon with a high level of pretsipitin in blood is observed.

The infectious allergy and immunity

Opinions concerning interrelation of PCh of the slowed-down type and immunity at infectious diseases are very contradictory. In an experiment it is difficult to separate immunity from PCh of the slowed-down type since various ways of immunization which are not leading to formation of PCh of the slowed-down type do not give also rather expressed immunity. At experimental parenteral administration of microbes, marked radioisotopes, it is established that PCh of the slowed-down type considerably slows down distribution of the activator. At acute infections this fact is not of great importance since dissimination comes quicker, than PCh of the slowed-down type develops. However at infection with the minimum doses of the activator which it is long is late in limf, nodes, PCh of the slowed-down type can slow down its further distribution. At hron. infections with long existence of the activator in the separate centers (tuberculosis, a brucellosis) PCh of the slowed-down type can interfere with secondary generalization of an infection. Besides, at suppression of PCh of the slowed-down type anti-lymphocytic serum oppresses the digesting ability of macrophages in relation to the activator, that is the main mechanism suffers immunity (see).

At the same time in a basis the wedge, manifestations hron, infections lies an allergic inflammation. The most severe forms of a pulmonary tuberculosis, brucellous defeats of c. N of page, joints, a liver, heart, toksoplazmozny damages of an eye, display of a tuberculoid leprosy and others develop as response inflammatory reaction of a sensibilized organism to presence of the activator. Transition from generalized forms of an infection to its localization matches increase of a sensitization. The hyporeactive forms proceeding with an insufficient sensitization differ in extreme persistence, will badly respond to treatment. At the latent forms which are quite clinically compensated the sensitization is sharply expressed.

Thus, PCh of the slowed-down type is useful as one of mechanisms of immunity helping to limit and localize an infection, interfering its repeated generalizations. At the same time it considerably causes all a wedge, a picture hron, infectious diseases. At each specific patient it is necessary to establish whether the state to PCh of the slowed-down type brings it benefit or harm, is an indicator of immunity or causes a heavy wedge, the phenomena i.e. whether it is necessary to aim at desensitization.

Differently it is necessary to estimate a role And. and. at local infectious processes. The threat of generalization of staphylococcus, neysseriya and other microbes from the centers hron, infections is small, therefore, the protective role of PCh of the slowed-down type is minor, and its pathogenetic value is undoubted.

Concerning positive or negative influence of PCh of immediate type on microbes or parasites there are no sufficient data. E.g., at an ankilostomidoza primary penetration of larvae through skin does not cause local reaction, the invasion develops. At a repeated infection the local inflammation is observed and larvae of ankylostomas perish. However it is unknown whether death of larvae is caused by an allergic inflammation or other mechanisms of immunity. At the same time the heaviest manifestations of an inflammation around the helminths localized in fabrics, a small tortoiseshell, a Quincke's edema, attacks of bronchial asthma, certainly, are harmful to them.

A role of an allergy in a pathogeny of invasive diseases. At protozoan diseases degree and the nature of allergic reorganization depend on localization of a parasite. At an amebiasis, a lambliasis manifestations of PCh of immediate type are frequent: eosinophilia (see), a skin itch (see. Itch skin ), small tortoiseshell (see), sometimes bronchial asthma (see). These manifestations have secondary character and are not the cornerstone of a pathogeny of a disease.

At a toxoplasmosis, leyshmanioza the expressed PCh of the slowed-down type leading to emergence hron, inflammatory process around the centers of localization of the activator develops; skin tests with the corresponding allergens are positive.

PCh of immediate type is characteristic of helminthoses, but at separate of them also PCh of the slowed-down type (a schistosomatosis, the Echinococcosis, a trichinosis) can be observed at the same time. Degree of manifestation of a sensitization and a role of allergic reactions in their pathogeny are various.

At intestinal helminthic invasions (an ascaridosis, a trichuriasis, ankilostomidoz) a wedge, displays of an allergy in the form of a small tortoiseshell, bronchial asthma meet seldom. Proteins of a parasite, getting into intestines, are digested and lose allergenic properties. However during migration of causative agents of these helminthoses the sensitization is sharply expressed, eosinophilic infiltrates in lungs can be formed (see. Lefflera syndrome ).

At an acute opisthorchosis the eosinophilia in blood reaches very high figures, however the general a wedge, displays of an allergy are rare.

At an echinococcosis when the parasite is directly in fabrics, the sensitization is sharply expressed, skin tests are positive at the vast majority of patients; at hit of vesical liquid during operation can develop in an organism acute anaphylaxis (see). At the same time the wedge, is not enough displays of an allergy or they are absent since the parasite is surrounded with the powerful fibrous capsule, because of a cut few allergens come to an organism.

At those helminthoses which causative agents are directly in fabrics heavy, quite often life-threatening manifestations of allergic reactions prevail. At patients with an onchocercosis, vukhereriozy, akantokheylonematozy parasites are localized in skin, limf, nodes, a mesentery, a liver and other fabrics. According to such localization displays of an allergy are brightly expressed: fever, urticaria, allergic hypostases, infiltrates around parasites.

At a trichinosis adult parasites are in fibers of intestines, and the sensitization develops at this time. Further larvae get to blood, extend on all organism therefore the sensitization accrues, heavy allergic reactions develop up to shock, sometimes leading to a lethal outcome.

Thus, at helminthoses degree of a sensitization depends on localization of a parasite: it that is higher, than the contact of a parasite with tissues of the owner is closer. Weight a wedge, is more than manifestations of subjects, than more intensively the invasion and than is higher degree of a sensitization.

Methods of definition of an infectious allergy

Diagnosis And. and. it is possible by means of various allergens (see. Allergens, drugs ). Virus allergens prepare from viruliferous allantoisny liquid of chicken embryos (a tick-borne encephalitis, flu, epid, parotitis), from fabric of the struck bodies (veins. lymphogranuloma) with the maximum cleaning of antigens of substrate. Bacterial allergens are used various: suspensions of microbic cells (tularin, brucellous corpuscular antigen), filtrates of bouillon cultures (alttuberkulin, histoplasmin, Actinomycinum), thermostable fractions according to Ando — to Verzhikovsky, the allergens received by ultrasonic cell desintegration, the cleared protein fractions (tuberculine-PPD), polisakharidno-polypeptide complexes (pestin), alkaline proteinaceous extracts, etc. In all drugs the main effective agent are proteins of a microbic cell.

For identification of PCh are most often used skin tests (see). With their help it is possible to find at the same time PCh of immediate type (in 20 — 30 min.) and PCh of the slowed-down type (in 24 — 48 hours). Specificity of skin tests relative since at different types of microbes within one sort the community of allergens therefore cross-reactions, napr, with different types of mycobacteria of tuberculosis, with different types of brucellas etc. turn out is brightly expressed. The general allergens also occur at a different genus of microbes, napr, at mycobacteria of tuberculosis and nonpathogenic mycobacteria, at different childbirth of fungi, at all group is enterobakteriya. At the same time skin tests are specific to identification of a sensitization to this species or a genus of microbes or fungi; they are not positive at healthy people and at the infectious diseases caused by other activators.

The positive take of skin test does not exclude any other etiology of defeats since skin tests reveal only a condition of a sensitization to a microbe, from to-rogo this allergen is received. E.g., positive test with toksoplazminy does not exclude tubercular, brucellous and other etiology of defeat. Development of focal reaction after statement of skin test or after additional introduction in doubtful cases of allergen subcutaneously in a bigger dose is the most convincing.

At diagnosis of allergic diseases positive takes of skin tests with allergens of eurysynusic microbes are not always rather indicative. Healthy people have tests with allergens of staphylococcus, Candida and other allergens are positive in considerable percent of cases. In this regard at etiol, are necessary for diagnosis of allergic diseases along with skin provocative tests (see). At bronchial asthma provocative test is considered positive and confirms a role of a microbe in development of a disease if inhalation of the corresponding allergen causes a bronchospasm; at infectious and allergic rhinitises putting allergen on a mucous membrane of a nose causes an aggravation; at an allergic dermatosis statement of skin test leads to strengthening of an inflammation in the centers. One of kinds of provocative tests is intravenous administration of allergens. In practice of diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases it is used only at a brucellosis and reveals sensibilized patients more, than skin test. In an experiment by means of intravenous administration of lizirovanny microbic allergens PCh of immediate type to microbic allergens comes to light (acute anaphylaxis), and at administration of corpuscular allergens — PCh of the slowed-down type.

For identification And. and. at various diseases the complex of tests in vitro is developed: for definition of PCh of the slowed-down type are used reaction blastotransformation of lymphocytes (see), reaction of braking of migration, for definition of PCh of immediate type — reaction of passive degranulation of mast cells. For each reaction it is necessary to pick up allergen, to fulfill its optimum doses.

The positive take of skin tests convincingly proves existence And. and., but tells nothing about activity of a disease. Sharply positive tests are characteristic of quite compensated and latent cases of a disease and can remain for years after bacterial, recovery. Besides, the sensitization can be result of the postponed latent form of an infection, preventive inoculations.

Demands care and assessment of results of tests of in vitro. They are less reliable, than skin and provocative tests, and have a certain diagnostic value only at comprehensive examination of the patient. Positive reaction of a blastotransformation of lymphocytes tells more about activity of infectious process, than about degree And. and.; reaction of damage of neutrophils reflects the level of antibodies in blood serum.


Treatment of manifestations And. and. it is directed to elimination of the activator since after elimination of an infection at preservation of a condition of a sensitization antigens in an organism are not formed, allergic reactions do not arise. The antibiotics applied for this purpose interfere with development of a sensitization only at appointment them in very early stage of a disease, by reduction of quantity of microbes. Antibiotics do not influence already developed PCh of the slowed-down type.

The condition of PCh of the slowed-down type can be kept by decades after bacterial, recovery, perhaps, owing to transition of microbes to L-forms silt and because the term of life of T lymphocytes reaches 20 years. In the absence of the activator in an organism it has no pathogenetic value, and attempts of desensitization can do only harm.

At some infectious and allergic diseases when the sufficient effect of antibacterial drugs is not gained, for the purpose of desensitization the corresponding drugs are used: tuberculine at tuberculosis, vaccines at a brucellosis, an actinomycosis, a candidiasis, etc. At PCh of the slowed-down type intravenous administration by the patient to lay down. leads vaccines in the accruing doses only to short-term moderate decrease in PCh — in 1 — 2 month the PCh previous level of the slowed-down type is recovered or even becomes higher. The similar phenomenon is observed at the infectious and allergic diseases caused by a sensitization the microbes which are in the centers hron, infections — efficiency of desensitization at infectious and allergic bronchial asthma is much lower, than at its atopic forms.

Because administration of allergen causes focal, and sometimes and heavy general reactions, desensitization is contraindicated at defeats of c. N of page, eyes, at diffusion changes in a liver, kidneys, at disturbances of cordial activity, pregnancy. For suppression of excessively strong inflammatory reactions, sometimes life-threatening, the corticosteroid hormones applied in rather high doses, perhaps shorter course and surely iod by protection of antibiotics since corticosteroids at the same time considerably suppress immunity are most effective.

Antihistaminic drugs can render a certain effect only at PCh of immediate type, napr, at helminthoses, urticaria of a microbic etiology. They reduce a wedge, manifestations of an imediate-type allergy, but do not remove the cause, and after the termination of their reception symptoms, as a rule, renew.

Prevention of an infectious allergy by elimination of contact with the agent who caused its development is possible only in rare instances (detergents with microbic enzymes, antibiotics of a microbic origin). Prevention of development And. and. at infections comes down to their prevention. At the patient with the developed infection prevention of a sensitization does not make sense since PCh of the slowed-down type should be considered as one of mechanisms of immunity. At patients with tendency to allergic diseases the prevention of their development requires careful and intensive treatment of acute respiratory diseases, the centers hron, to an infection.

Some features of an infectious allergy at effect of bacterial toxins. Beginning of studying And. and. to bacterial toxins there were researches of I. L. Krichevsky and N. V. Galanova (1934) who established that cells of unstriated muscles of a uterus of the Guinea pigs infected with V. abortus react to endotoxin of this microorganism, than the same cells of intact animals more actively.

Further the Soviet scientists studied reaction of various cells of an organism on endo-and exotoxins of bacteria — causative agents of a brucellosis, tuberculosis, a sap, diphtheria, tetanus, botulism, a mephitic gangrene and on various viruses.

Pilot studies

Pilot studies gave the grounds to formulate two main patterns defining manifestations And. and. an organism to bacterial toxins in the course of an infection and immunity. The first pattern is that any antigen entered into an organism causes reaction not only the cells developing specific antibodies, but also everything, other cells irrespective of the fact which fiziol they perform functions in an organism. And the second pattern — manifestations And. and. in these cases can be specific and nonspecific. The nature of reaction of cells to antigen depends on properties of antigen and conditions of its introduction to an organism.

At the beginning of the researches reaction of cells of unstriated muscles as the most convenient laboratory model accepted in pilot studies was studied. Cells of unstriated muscles of a uterus, a small intestine and blood vessels of the rabbits infected with V. abortus and V. mallei react to their endotoxins much stronger, than the same cells of not infected animals. And. and. cells of unstriated muscles of Guinea pigs has only external looking alike reaction of the same cells, sensibilized serum of a horse. The condition of desensitization coming after reduction of a muscle after contact with a specific antigen is characteristic of the cells which are in a condition of PCh of immediate type to horse serum. And. and. the same cells are not replaced by a condition of desensitization even after repeated contact with antigen. Increase in a dose of a specific antigen involves reduction of a muscle with a bigger force. The condition of desensitization of cells of unstriated muscles does not come during the entire period while the isolated body shows viability.

Cells of the same animal can be at the same time in a state And. and. concerning a brucellosis, in a condition of immunity concerning a typhoid PCh of immediate type to protein of serum of a horse is also able. The isolated bodies of such animals after the postponed acute anaphylaxis are desensibilized concerning serum of a horse; their immunity to endotoxin of the causative agent of a typhoid is reduced, but there is a hypersensitivity of cells concerning abortus endotoxin B.

State And. and. unstriated muscles of a uterus and small intestine, abortus which resulted from infection of animals with a virulent strain of V., is strictly specific, remains up to one and a half years and is not transferred to passively intact animal.

Thus, except the types of hypersensitivity stated above at And. and., experiences on smooth muscle cells revealed existence of one more type of immediate PCh, the mechanism the cut remains still not clear. Except specific mechanisms I. and., there are also nonspecific mechanisms most of which brightly come to light at a phenomenon of Beringa (see. Beringa phenomenon ). At reproduction its action of small doses of bacterial exotoxins on an organism causes changes from all cells and in the first stage is not specific since immune mechanisms do not manage to turn on yet.

The small doses of bacterial exotoxins entered at an interval of 1 hour do not cause antibody formation, but a cell of an adenoid tissue (regional and remote limf, nodes, a spleen) react to administration of exotoxin. In prints of these fabrics which are tracked within 40 days a large number of unripe plasmocytes which are not capable to develop antibodies was revealed. Unripe plasmocytes appeared for the 5th day after introduction of the first small dose of diphtheritic exotoxin. The quantity them quickly increased, and then gradually fell, but within 40 days was more, than at control animals, and the quantity of mature plasmocytes did not change. Reaction of formation of the plasmocytes capable to develop antibodies in conditions And. and. to bacterial exotoxin, remains incomplete. Cells limf, systems, including unripe plasmocytes of animals, sensibilized small doses of bacterial exotoxin, do not lose ability to react to irritation antigen.

Change of reaction of macrophages occurs for the 7th day after the beginning of a sensitization. This reaction is tracked till 45th day, it is specific. The macrophages received from the Guinea pigs having hypersensitivity to botulinum toxin have no ability to connect diphtheritic exotoxin in large numbers, than macrophages of intact animals.

Conditions of normal implementation fiziol, functions by each cell of a difficult organism are created by consecutive and coordinated action of fermental systems. At the animals who are in a state And. and. to diphtheritic exotoxin, created by introduction of small doses of this toxin, such sequence is broken. At the same time disturbances of activity of a row of fermental systems which are nonspecific come to light. Extent of change of activity of 10 studied enzymes participating in redoxreactions depends on intervals, with to-rymi exotoxin, and from quantity of its injections was entered. Changes in cells of a muscle of heart and unstriated muscles of a small intestine at introduction 1 are most brightly expressed: 100 Dim of diphtheritic exotoxin an interval at 1 o'clock on 6 times a day within 4 days.

Cells of a sensibilized organism inadequately react to any irritation (a nonspecific stage And. and.), and the organism perishes before the cells providing specific protection take effect.

Detailed studying of reactions of various systems of cells to allergens gives the chance to develop rational methods of prevention And. and.

See also Allergy , Autoallergy .

Bibliography: Beklemishev N. D. Infectious allergy, Alma-Ata, 1968; Bogdanov I. L. An allergy in a pathogeny, clinic and therapy of infectious diseases, M., 1974, bibliogr.; Fish-traps g about p and A. E. Microbic allergy, Kiev, 1971, bibliogr.; Zdrodovsky Item F. Problems of an infection, immunity and allergy, M., 1969, bibliogr.; Immunology and an immunopathology of tuberculosis, under the editorship of M. M. Averbakh, M., 1976; Infectious and allergic diseases at children, under the editorship of Yu. F. Dombrovskaya, M., 1965; Kravchenko A. T. About relationship of a condition of immunity and an allergy, Zhurn, mikr., epid, and immun., KA 4, page 11, 1975, bibliogr.; To r both the p e in-sky I. L. and Galanov N. V. New ways of studying of immunity and an allergy at infectious diseases, in the same place, t. 13, No. 3, page 392, 1934, bibliogr.; Private allergology, under the editorship of. And. D. Ado, M., 1976; Asherson G. L. The role of microorganisms in autoimmune responses, Progr. Allergy, v. 12, p. 192, 1968, bibliogr.; Turk J. L. Delayed hypersensitivity, N. Y., 1975.

H. D. Beklemishev; A. T. Kravchenko (features And. and. at effect of bacterial toxins).