From Big Medical Encyclopedia

INDUCED MADNESS (Latin inducere to enter, direct; synonym: the induced insanity, the induced psychosis, symbiotic psychosis) — a kind of a psychogenic disease with developing of a mental disorder under the influence of mentally sick person at the person who before did not have a sincere disease. At Nominative in a joint disease of two and more faces of the insane — the inductor subjects the others — induced only to mental «infection», «a passing mental infection». In fr. literature the first detailed message under the name folie a deux (insanity together) was made by E. Ch. Lasegue and Zh. Falre at a meeting of the Parisian medico-psychological society (1873). In domestic psychiatry V. I. Yakovenko's research (1887) is devoted to this question. The term «induced madness» is offered by G. Lehmann in 1883

the Clinical picture

At Nominative mental disorders at the inductor and induced are identical on form and content. Being a situational mental disease, Nominative can arise in the most various forms, is capable to reflect any mental derangement. Most often, however, Nominative is shown in the form of crazy psychosis with development of the ideas of prosecution, poisoning, damage, religious or litigious nonsense (see. Nonsense ). The crazy ideas of the induced faces, in comparison with crazy statements of the inductor are, as a rule, less developed in details and systematized, is poorer in contents, can be stated in the most habit view. The last sign is very important since it allows to reveal a source of dilirium formation, i.e. the inductor. The crazy ideas induced usually develop only under the influence of the inductor and only seldom or never induced is capable to exert impact on the maintenance of the crazy ideas of the inductor. According to nonsense induced have various forms of crazy behavior. Except nonsense, especially in cases where the large number of persons is exposed to induction, there can be affective frustration in the form of ecstasy, fear, reactions of panic (see. Reactive psychoses ), illusions and hallucinations (preferential religious and mystical contents), various manifestations hysteria (see). Hysterical frustration, arising at a large number of persons, can take the form of a hysterics (the passionate lamentations and shouts accompanied with expressional motive excitement or attacks), «meryacheniya» — uncontrollable imitations words and actions of people around, i.e. Nominative it is capable to take the form of mental epidemic. J. Vliegen considers an example of mental epidemic of recent time the maniacal (passionate) mass hysteria of the third Reich which arose under the influence of specific social conditions and the hysterical inductor. To Nominative a number of cases expanded, i.e. treats with participation of two and more persons, suicides; an example are cases of mass self-immolation of members of religious sects.

Nominative can have acute and long character, proceeding in cases of development of the crazy ideas for a number of years.

The pathogeny

Nominative arises at persons with the increased suggestibility — with mental infantility (see. Infantility, mental disorders ), at psychopathic persons (see. Psychopathies ), at suffering oligophrenia (see), in various by origin and expressivenesses cases of an organic psychosyndrome (see. Pathopsyhosis ), i.e. its emergence always requires existence of the inborn or acquired instability of c. N of page. To development of Nominative, especially in the form of delirium, the long contact of the inductor and induced at frequent and close communication or cohabitation always precedes. Therefore develops in 40% of cases of Nominative at parents and children, brothers and sisters. This fact testifies not only to value of certain external conditions, but also confirms value of a background, on Krom Nominative develops. The induced nonsense arises easily when at the inductor it develops gradually, contents has it plausible details when the ideas introduced by the inductor correspond to installations of the most induced.

Suggestion is combined with a clear affective component. Affectivity always more is considerably expressed at women. Perhaps, by this circumstance is explained the fact that inductors more often are women.

Certain social conditions, and also various somatopathies weakening an organism are important for emergence of acute forms of Nominative with hallucinatory, affective or hysterical symptoms.

The diagnosis

the Diagnosis and the differential diagnosis is made in the presence of conformed and to the maintenance of a mental disease at two or more persons which are in constant communication from whom an insane in full sense is only one.

It is necessary to differentiate Nominative with conformal nonsense when two or more mentally sick have conformed and to contents crazy frustration. In cases of conformal nonsense there is an induction by one patient of other patients, at the same time contrary to Nominative the nonsense of induced is often inclined to progressive development, and, besides, itself induced quite often begins to induce the former inductor, supplementing and developing his former nonsense.


Is necessary separation induced and the inductor. Depending on specific features induced a reduction of mental disorders occurs in various terms. Mass cases of Nominative shall be treated by removal of the inductor, in some cases at the same time also separation of induced is shown. In all cases of Nominative after separation of the inductor and induced concerning the last use is shown psychotherapy (see).

The forecast

the Termination of suggestion promotes easing and disappearance of painful frustration at induced.

Bibliography Bleyler E. Affectivity, suggestibility and paranoya, the lane with it., Odessa, 1929; Osipov V. P. The guide to psychiatry, page 452, M. — L., 1931; Pogibko N. I. The induced psychoses, M., 1970; Yakovenko V. I. Induced madness (folie and deux), as one of types of pathological imitation, SPb., 1887; D about P. and Alexandrov's N-chev M. Ying-dutsirani psychosis and a prestjpleniye, Nevrol., psikhiat, and nevrokhir. (Sofia), t. 13, No. 4, page 343, 1974; LasequeCh. et F and 1 g of e t S. La folie a deux ou folie com-muniquee, Ann. med. - psychol., t. 18, p. 321, 1877; Lehmann G. Sur Casuistik des inducirten Irreseins (Folie a deux), Arch. Psychiatr. Nervenkr., Bd 14, S. 145, 1883; Y 1 i e g e n J. Lexikon der Psychiatrie, S. 288, B. u. a., 1973, Bibliogr.

M of B. Korkina, H. G. Shumsky.