INDOLE (alpha, beta and petrolpyrrol, C 8 H 7 N) — organic compound; in an organism of animals and the person it is formed of tryptophane (beta indolyl - alpha and aminopropionic to - you) and the proteins containing tryptophane, as a result of bacterial activity of intestinal microflora, being in lower parts of a small bowel and in a large intestine.
And. it is poisonous, its neutralization happens in a liver: And. at first it is hydroxylated to indoxyl which reacts etherifications with sulfuric and glucuronic to-tami, forming indoksilserny and indoksilglyukuronovy to - you. These to - you in the form of potassium and sodium salt are brought from an organism with urine (see. Indican ). At diseases of a liver productional can be observed indicanemia (see), caused by decline in the ability of a liver to neutralize an indole. An indicator of the increased education in an organism And. is indicanuria (see). Small amounts And. are formed at rotting (see). Biologically active derivative And. beta and indolyacetic to - that (IUK) is the activator of growth of plants (see. Activators of growth ). The indole is used in the perfumery industry.
At the person I. owing to extremely off-flavor can make sick, dizziness and other subjective feelings.
On laboratory animals And. works as hemolitic poison, in big concentration it oppresses cordial activity, causes clonic spasms, a hamaturia; destructive changes of vessels of a brain, growth of the hemopoietic fabric are found.
And. can exist in the form of two structures: the benzene and ortho-condensed with it pyrrol rings (a) and desmotropic structure (b), in a cut there is a reactive methylene group:
Indole connections quite often meet in the nature. And. is a part of jasmine and orange oils, contains in flowers of a white acacia. Significant amounts And. contain in coke-oven coal tar, from to-rogo it usually and receive. Together with beta skatole (skatole) And. it is found in excrements, in drain waters. In proteins the indole group contains in a look tryptophane (see), it is present also at the «vegetable» indican serving earlier as one of the indigo main sources (blue) and also at connections, many of which are applied as pharmaceuticals (strychnine, yohimbine, etc.).
And. it is for the first time allocated from indigotin it. the chemist A. Bayer in 1865.
It represents colourless crystals with t ° pl 52,5 ° and t ° kip 253 — 254 °; it is easily alcohol-soluble also to hot water, letuch (with water vapor). In big concentration possesses a repellent fecal smell; in insignificant concentration cleared And. extends a peculiar flower aroma. The simplest laboratory method of receiving And. — condensation of acetylene with aniline — it is offered by A. E. Chichibabin in 1915. On air I. darkens and gradually resinifies, under action to - the t is exposed polymerizations (see), with picric to - that forms well crystallizing red picrate; use this reaction at allocation and cleaning And.
Bibliography: L. A. moves and Mareeva H. C. A quantitative colorimetric method of definition of an indole in air, Laborat, business, JSIe 11, page 29, 1962; Since and N of e in A. K. and Orlov T. A. To a question of studying of toxicity of an indole, in book: Probl, kosmich. biol., under the editorship of V. N. Chernigovsky, t. 16, page 190, M., 1971.
T. A. Severin.