INDICATION OF WEAPONS OF DESTRUCTION (Latin indicare to specify, define) — high-quality detection and quantitative definition of radioactive (RV), the toxic agents (TA), and also bacterial (biological) means (BS) in the environment, in an organism of people and animals. Timely and reliable And. page of the item — one of the major actions in system of protection of staff of troops and the population from weapons of mass destruction (see. Biological weapons , Chemical weapon , Nuclear weapon ). Data And. pages of the item are used at organization of events on mitigation of consequences of use by the opponent of these types of weapon (see. Protection against means of war of defeat ). For timely detection and the notification of troops and the population about use of weapons of mass defeat, and also definition of the zones contaminated by RV, infection focuses of OB and AF and the corresponding designation of their borders also bacterial, the investigation organized by headquarters of bodies and headquarters of GO is carried out radiation, chemical. Investigation special formations of GO and division of chemical troops, and to carrying out carry out bacterial, investigations, besides, the staff of medical divisions of military units and formations of medical service GO is attracted. In districts of placement of medical institutions radiation, chemical and bacterial, investigation will be organized by chiefs of these institutions and carried out by own efforts (see. Medical investigation ).
Examination on infectiousness of PB, OB, BC of drinking water, food, allocations of people and other materials is carried out in the relevant institutions of medical service AF of the USSR and medical service GO.
Indication of radiocontamination it is based on property of ionizing radiation at interaction with substance to form ions (see).
In the course of indication of RV areas of the area can decide on zones of dangerous, severe and moderate infection, degree of radiocontamination of integuments and regimentals of staff of troops and the population, military equipment, defensive works and civil structures.
For indication of radiocontamination the field dosimeters operating on the same principles as the radiation monitoring instruments applied to dosimetry in usual conditions are used (see. Dosimetry of ionizing radiation, dosimeters ). The roentgenometer radiometer of DP-5A is intended for measurement of level of ionizing radiation on areas and definitions of impurity of RV of integuments of people, clothes, food, water, and also surfaces of various objects. It is possible to measure by the device gamma radiation both gamma and beta radiation totally. The DP-11B radiometer is used to measurement of degree of radiocontamination of surfaces of various objects, skin and clothes of the person.
For definition of a dose of the ionizing radiation received by people at stay in a zone yaderno go explosion or on the contaminated RV of the area, sets of individual DP-22V, DP-23A, DP-70 dosimeters are used. The set of DP-22V contains individual DKP-50A dosimeters, and a set of DP-23A — DKP-50 and DS-50 dosimeters. These dosimeters can measure an ionizing radiation dose to 50 R. the Chemical DP-70 dosimeter is used for definition of a dose of radiation in the range from 50 to 800 P (see. Radiation control ).
Examination on radiocontamination of water, food and other environments is carried out in radiological laboratories (see).
Indication of OV it is carried out with use chemical, biochemical, physical., fiziko-chemical and biol, methods, and also organoleptic.
Chemical methods are used most widely. They are based on ability of OV to react interactions with certain chemical substances (reactants, indicators). Distinguish straight lines and indirect methods of chemical indication. Direct methods allow to establish a type of OV as a result of strictly specific reaction it with the corresponding reactant. Indirect methods are based on definition of the studied O B on products of its decomposition.
Chemical indication of unknown OV, as a rule, begins with a qualitative ultimate analysis, definition of functional groups of the studied chemical connection with the subsequent carrying out reactions of indication in relation to an estimated type of OV. At suspicion on infectiousness certain O B carries out group or specific reactions.
Indication of organophosphorous OV (FOV) is based by hl. obr. on use of biochemical, staining or sedimentary reactions.
Indication of sulfuric iprit (the halogenated monothioesters) is based on use of their alkylating properties and ability to a complex formation and oxidation.
Indication of nitrogenous iprit (halogenated aliphatic basic nitriles) is possible the nek-ry not specific reactions used for indication of sulfuric yperite and also staining reactions of sedimentation of basic nitriles.
Indication hydrocianic to - you and cyanides is carried out by reaction of formation of Prussian blue with salts of two - and trivalent iron (reaction is specific).
Indication of myshyaksoderzhashchy OV is carried out by means of reaction of recovery of arsenic to hydrogen arsenide by hydrogen at the time of its allocation: hydrogen arsenide is determined by decolourization of the filter paper impregnated with solution of silver nitrate, mercury bromide or gold chloride.
Indication of the suffocating, tear, irritating and psychotomimetic OV is carried out by generally also staining and sedimentary reactions and by means of some special indicator pieces of paper and tubes, method photo and flyuorometriya.
The biochemical method of indication is based on ability of some OV to affect selectively activity of enzymes in an organism. So, e.g., phosphorus O B (sarin, GD, etc.) selectively oppress enzyme cholinesterase.
The biological method is based on the high selective sensitivity of some animal species to influence of certain OV which is shown characteristic a wedge, and patofiziol, signs of defeat. Hypersensitivity, e.g., to yperite dogs and snails, to phosgene — cats and hens, to hydrocianic to - those and carbon monoxide — canaries have. Also sharp selectivity in operation of some OV on various systems and bodies can be used. So, FOV in the minimum doses cause a miosis. Biological methods of indication of OV are applied in difficult cases when it is impossible to find OV by means of simpler methods.
Physical or physical and chemical methods of indication are based on definition of changes of some physical. constants of the environment in the presence of OV. Definition of such indicators as density, temperature of plavleniye and boiling, pressure of a saturated steam, molecular refraction of substance, allows to establish rather precisely identity of the studied product with the known substance. For indication of OV also the spectroscopy, a chromatography, a polyarografiya, etc. are used.
The organoleptic method is auxiliary. Subjective perception by the person or animals of a smell or taste of OV, irritation of a mucous membrane of eyes, a respiratory organs, integuments and detection on the soil and vegetation of drops of OV is the cornerstone of it. Reliability of the data obtained by an organoleptic method is very relative. Besides, use of this method is connected with risk of defeat of OV.
Means of indication of OV in field conditions shall be convenient in use, have high sensitivity, sufficient specificity, speed of manifestation of analytical effect, to keep functional properties at storage. For indication of O B in field conditions use indicator powders, pencils, pieces of paper, tubes, and also automatic gas-signaling devices.
Indicator powders turn on the powdery carrier (silica gel, talc, sand, etc.) with addition of dyes and reagent. At influence of O B their coloring changes. They are convenient for detection resistant O B on the area, on the painted surfaces.
Indicator pencils are executed in the form of the pressed filler with dye and reagent. They are intended for indication of O B on firm objects by drawing shading. Use of indicator powders and pencils is limited owing to their insufficient sensitivity and specificity, and also considerable difficulties in definition of an aerosol of OV.
Indicator papers — the filter paper or a cardboard impregnated with special structures with the indicator which in the presence of OV change the coloring. Are used for qualitative and approximate quantitative test of OV.
Indicator tubes — the glass cylinder soldered from two parties with a filler (usually white silica gel) containing dye and reagent. For detection of OV the most specific are used chemical or biochemical, the reactions providing bystry obtaining evident and reliable effect. Staining reaction of OV happens to the indicator at hesitation pumping through a tube of the infected air. In some samples of tubes reagent is in a separate ampoule and moves on a filler after or before hesitation pumping of the infected air. Quantitative definition of concentration of O B by means of indicator tubes is usually carried out by comparison of coloring of a filler with a standard. Indicator tubes are widely applied in organic devices of chemical investigation and in field chemical laboratories.
Army devices of chemical investigation
Automatic gas-signaling devices are intended for carrying out indication of O B continuous for a long time with the automatic delivery of sound or light signals at their emergence in air. They are based on use chemical, biochemical, and physical. methods of indication. The majority of the existing gas-signaling devices has no sufficient specificity and sensitivity. However the possibility of bystry establishment of the fact of use of chemical weapon does these technical means of indication very perspective.
For definition of OV in air, on the area, the equipment, arms and other objects the army device of chemical investigation (VPHR), and is intended for definition of OV in water and food — the device of chemical investigation medical, veterinary (PHR-MV). The device is completed with the manual pump, cartridges with indicator tubes on various OV, a chemical cartridge heater (only in VPHR), p other
Medical field chemical laboratory (MPHL) is intended by ampoule liquid reactants, devices for sampling for qualitative and quantitative test of infectiousness of water, foodstuff, objects of arms and military equipment and other objects, and also check of completeness of decontamination.
Examination on infectiousness of OV
the Purpose of examination of various objects of the environment, and also biol, Wednesdays — to draw the conclusion about a possibility of their further use to destination or to make recommendations of the order excluding: danger of defeat of people and animals at the treatment of them. Examination of objects of the environment hold in divisions chemical services, and waters, food and medical property in a dignity. - a gigabyte. institutions of medical service AF of the USSR, GO or M3 of the USSR where the samples taken from objects, infected or suspicious on infection of O B, shall be delivered.
Tests of water (1 — 2 l) get from superficial, median and benthonic layers of a reservoir. Tests of food and fodder are selected after preliminary decontamination of a container, taking into account a type of packaging and character of a product. From each homogeneous batch of food select not less than three tests in the conditions excluding secondary infection. If food is in a tight container (e.g., canned food, metal tanks) and after special processing on a container of OV is not defined by the army device of chemical investigation (VPHR, PHR-MV), sampling, as a rule, is not made.
Tests biosred (blood, urine, fabric or bodies) are selected in the quantity standard for carrying out a wedge, or court. - medical researches. From objects of military equipment, regimentals and equipment, vegetation of Pi of other objects of a drop of OV act the dry or moistened with solvent (alcohol, ether) tampons from cotton wool, a gauze, and also stripping of a surface layer. Samples of air are selected by a transmission it during certain time through a sorbent or solvent. Tests of the soil (50 — 100 cm *) are selected in places of the most probable infection (edge of funnels, a drop of OV on the area). The layer of earth can be removed on depth to 5 cm. Before research OV from tests of the soil, food and hard materials are transferred to solvent, a sorbent or other environment convenient for the subsequent indication.
For extraction of OV most often use organic solvents (alcohol, petroleum ether, a dichloroethane, chloroform), water.
The expert opinion is formed on the basis of the results of laboratory researches yielded about the place, time and samplings condition, the nature of infectiousness of an object (environment) and other information reflected in accompanying documents. The following versions of the conclusions concerning the equipment, arms, medical property and other studied objects (environments) are usually used: can be used for designated purpose without restrictions; further use (use is possible after special processing; is subject to special processing with a repeated laboratory research; is liable to destruction. Except these versions of the conclusion, for food and water the possibility of use is provided: after culinary processing (boiling); with restriction of quantity of the consumed products (water) in case of their infection within admissible sizes. As a rule, the ready niche, bread, vegetables and other porous products infected with resistant OV are liable to destruction.
Indication of the bacterial means (BM) of defeat is carried out for the purpose of establishment of the fact of use, and also identification of species of the applied BS. On the basis of results of indication the volume and character of the preventive, medical, observation, quarantine and other actions directed to mitigation of consequences of use by the opponent of BS are specified (see. Karantin, karantinization , Observation ).
Distinguish nonspecific and specific indication of BS of defeat. For nonspecific indication are used sighting, in process to-rogo the fact of use by the opponent of BS it can be established on the characteristic signs inherent in ammunition with BS (a deaf sound of explosion, formation of an aerosol cloud, detection on the area of drops of liquid, powdery structures, arthropods, the remains of aviation devices, containers, etc.), and also automatic devices — indicators of aerosols which are subdivided into the devices registering total quantity of the particles (counters of particles) weighed in air, and the devices registering only particles of the proteinaceous nature.
The simplest counter of particles was offered in 1948 by B. V. Deryagin and G. Ya. Vlasenko (fig. 1). It consists of a microscope, a light source, a tube, on a cut the studied aerosol prosasyvatsya. By means of this device it is visually possible to make calculation of aerosol particles in air.
In 1946 Mr. Gayton (A. Guyton, the USA) the electrostatic counter of aerosol particles (fig. 2) offered. It consists of a nozzle, through a cut the aerosol by the vacuum pump, the block of strengthening prosasyvatsya, the perceiving part to-rogo (copper thread) is taken out in a nozzle, the mechanical counter of particles, the power supply and the vacuum pump. Aerosol particles during the passing through a nozzle hit against copper thread and transfer it electric charge. In the block of strengthening of impulses charges amplify, registered and counted by the mechanical counter.
There are models of the counters working at a basis of a photoelectric effect. In these devices the electric impulses arising in a photo cell from hit on it light scattered by particles of an aerosol are registered.
Such devices are suitable for calculation of solid particles in air of rooms, cameras, boxes, and also in gas communications. Also monochromatic remote laser counters — so-called lidars belong to devices of nonspecific indication. With their help it is possible to define concentration and the sizes of aerosols at considerable distances.
In the devices intended for definition in air of aerosols of the proteinaceous nature property of proteinaceous bodies, including and bacteria, unlike inorganic particles, to give a visible fluorescent luminescence during the lighting by their ultraviolet rays with the wavelength of 250 — 290 nanometers is used.
For definition of proteinaceous (microbic) particles in 1962 an amer. scientists Nelsony, Boldueny, Sharkliff (S. Nelson, O. of E. Bolduan, W. A. Shurcliff) offered the device by Partikhr. In the device ability of the proteinaceous bodies besieged on a special tape is used (including and microbic) and inorganic aerosol particles variously to be painted etilviolety. Further by means of the special scanner the quantity of proteinaceous particles is counted.
The Spektroultramikroskopichesky method (V. N. Artyomova, 1972) is applied to detection of bacteria in water. It is based on calculation in a dark field of number of flashes of scattered and reflected light by the particles which are in water at their side lighting and allows to carry out fractional analysis of the studied particles. Bacteria distinguish from mineral particles on indices of refraction of light and amount of the light energy reflected and disseminated by them.
For bystry nonspecific indication of bacteria in air in 1969 Sanders (R. Sanders, the USA) offered the method based on assessment of shift in so-called balanced system enzyme — substrate, arising at addition to it of .mikrobny bodies. The system enzyme — substrate represents mix in the corresponding proportions of an alkaline phosphatase and ammonium sulfate (suspension of enzyme) with solution of the substrate consisting of a dinatriyfenilfosfat or paranitrophenyl-phosphate in the borate buffer (see. Buffered solutions ). If the microorganisms then emitted by them enzymes get to system enzyme — substrate hydrolyze substrate with formation of phenol which at addition in solution of a 2,6-dibromkhinokhloramid reacts with it and forms the Indo-phenol having blue color. Intensity of coloring is proportional to amount of the phenol formed in system. At a usual temperature coloring appears in 4 — 5 min., and in the boiling water bath — in 10 — 15 sec. The method is not suitable for indication of rickettsiae and viruses since they do not produce an alkaline phosphatase.
Specific indication is carried out for the purpose of establishment of the species of microorganisms applied as B S of defeat. It includes sampling from objects of the environment and their research by means of express and accelerated mikrobiol, methods, napr, precipitation tests, an immunofluorescence, etc. (see. Indication of microorganisms ).
Sampling is made around use of bacterial weapons of destruction with use of the laying containing the objects and devices intended for this purpose, and also a container for storage and transportation of tests. For a research samples of air, waters, washouts from surfaces of various objects, splinters of ammunition and the aviation spraying devices, and also arthropods, rodents, etc. can be selected. Samples of air are selected by means of the devices which are available in the divisions conducting radiation and chemical survey.
The persons which are selecting tests shall be in individual means of protection (a protivochumny suit, a protective suit and a gas mask). Tests place in sterile ware, to-ruyu outside process disinfecting solutions, pack and deliver specially allocated transport in corresponding bacterial, laboratory. In laboratory from native material smears for immunofluorescent microscopy prepare, processing and preparation of tests for a research is made. For this purpose from hard material suspension prepares (by grinding in a mortar with additive fiziol, solution or 0,5% of peptone water); then it is filtered via membrane nitrocellulose filters No. 2 or 3. Concentration of toxins from water solution reach by adsorption it on talc, and viruses on wadded and gauze tampons. Liquid tests investigate without pre-treatment. If concentration of microflora from air was carried out by means of gelatinous foamy filters or filters from sodium alginate, then they are dissolved in a beef-extract broth. Insoluble filters, and also adsorbents with the microflora besieged from air crush, place in fiziol, solution, a beef-extract broth or peptone water and, stirring up, desorb microflora. The prepared tests are studied by means of an immunofluorescent method and reaction of indirect hemagglutination. On the basis of these results draw the pre-trial positive detention about a type of BS applied by the opponent.
For enrichment and a further research the studied material is sowed on the corresponding mediums and infect with it sensitive animals. In 6 — 48 hours the received culture of bacteria is repeatedly studied by means of an immunofluorescent method and reaction of indirect hemagglutination. In cases when above-mentioned researches yield a doubtful or negative result, in B S test apply classical methods of a research to the final conclusion about absence — allocation and studying of pure growth of a microbe and its pathogenic properties on animals.
For a research on existence of pathogenic fungi, bacteria, rickettsiae, viruses and toxins the prepared material of each test is divided into five parts. — on fungi — for suppression of microflora add penicillin, biomycin or streptomycin on 500 — 1000 PIECES on 1 ml of liquid to the first subsample and maintain in the thermostat of 30 — 60 min. Then a part of material is sowed on Saburo's circle, a blood and aminopeptone agar from 2% with solution of glucose, to the Crimea above-mentioned antibiotics are also added. Other part of material use for infection (subcutaneously, intraperitoneally) white mice, Guinea pigs or rats at whom in the presence in test of pathogenic fungi mycotic defeats develop. After receiving pure growth study properties of a fungus and carry out final definition of its look.
The part of material intended for a research on a bacterium is divided into two portions. One portion is maintained within 30 min. at a temperature of 50 — 60 °. For a research on existence of spore-forming microflora this material is sowed on differential and diagnostic environments. Not heated-up portion of material is investigated on existence of vegetative microflora. For this purpose material is sowed on the selection and differential and diagnostic environments: on Hottinger's agar with growth-promoting factors of activators and a methylrosanilinum chloride, the curtailed vitelline environment, Hottinger's agar with the maintenance of 5% of egg yolk, a hepatic agar, a beef-extract agar, a beef-extract broth with glycerin (5%) or glucose (1%), etc. Wednesdays. Besides, material is entered subcutaneously or vnutrikozhno to white mice and Guinea pigs (indication of microorganisms of zoonotic group), intraperitoneally males of Guinea pigs at whom the specific orchitis, and to cats for detection of rickettsiae and some bacteria develops.
For indication of viruses the studied material is filtered through 2 — 3 layers of a gauze, the filtrate is mixed with penicillin (1000 PIECES) or streptomycin (500 PIECES in 1 ml of a filtrate) and infect with it laboratory animals (intratserebralno or intraperitoneally) and cultures of fabrics.
The test which is subject to a research on botulotoxins is divided into several portions, part of them mix with polyvalent antibotulinic serum in various cultivations and maintain in the thermostat of 20 — 30 min. then infect with them white mice. At the same time control party of the mice who are previously processed by a cortisone (for decrease in resistance), the starting material is entered. In the presence of botulotoxin mice in control party have a characteristic picture of poisoning with botulotoxin.
In the course of further studying of the emitted pure growths of pathogenic fungi and bacteria standard are used bacteriological techniques (see).
Indication of bacterial means in full can be carried out only in the laboratories staffed by highly qualified personnel and the corresponding equipment.
In the laboratory which is carrying out indication of bacterial weapons of destruction the mode accepted for the institutions conducting researches on especially dangerous infections is set.
Bibliography: Golubev B. P. Dosimetry and protection against ionizing radiation, M., 1971, bibliogr.; Grinkh.Ileynv. Aerosols — dust, smokes and fogs, the lane with English, L., 1972; Egiazarov G. M. The manual on indication of radioactive and toxic agents, M., 1972, bibliogr.; Zuev V. E. The laser — the meteorologist, L., 1974, bibliogr.; Kiktenko V. S., etc. Bacterial aerosols and methods of their research in sanitary microbiology, M., 1968, bibliogr.; R. V. queens. Sanitary and chemical examination of water and foodstuff, Mg, 1971, bibliogr.; Kukhtevich V. I., Goryachev I. V. and T r y to about in L. A. Protection against a penetrating radiation of nuclear explosion, M., 1970; Kucherenko V. D. Indication of pathogenic microbes in external environment, M., 1964, bibliogr.; M and r-gulis U. Ya. Radiation and protection, M., 1974, bibliogr.; Franc 3., Franz P. ivarnkev. Chemistry of toxic agents, the lane with it., t. 1 — 2, M., 1973.
Yu. M. Polumiskov; V. D. Kucherenko (Indus. BS).