INDIA

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

INDIA, Republic of India — the state located in the south of Asia on the peninsula of Hindustan. The area — 3288 thousand km 2 . The population — 610 million people (1976). The capital — Delhi (apprx. 5 million people, 1974), the largest cities — Calcutta (with suburbs of 7 million zhit., 1971), Bombay (6 million zhit., 1971). In the administrative relation And. it is divided into 22 states and 9 allied territories. The states are divided into districts. Ofits. Hindi and English.

INDIA

And. in the past, for 200 years, was colony of Great Britain. On August 15, 1947 independence was declared And. Till 1950. And. remained the dominion of Great Britain, on January 26, 1950 it is announced by the sovereign republic.

And. — federal republic. The head of state — the president elected for 5 years. The legislature belongs to the president and parliament which consists of Council of states and National chamber. Executive power belongs to the president and the government, a cut bears responsibility to National chamber. The head of the state — the governor appointed by the president; each state has the legislative assembly and the government. Allied territories are controlled the central government

of I. V a relief And. three large zones prevail: strongly dismembered tableland the Dean — on Yu.; the mountain Himalayas systems and Karakorum — on S.; between them the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Climate of the most part And. subtropical, monsoonal; on S. — tropical monsoons. The most droughty districts — sowing. - zap. part of the Indo-Gangetic Plain and central part of the Dean.

And. — agrarian-industrial country. In agriculture it is engaged apprx. 70% of the population. The leading industry of agriculture — agriculture. The major food crops: rice, wheat, barley, corn, millet, bean, sugarcane, etc. It is irrigated apprx. 25% of the processed areas. Productivity of grain crops low. Need of the country for food is satisfied not completely. A part of need for grain becomes covered due to purchases abroad. The livestock production, however in view of an insufficient food supply productivity its low is developed.

In the village since 1974 the complex of agrotechnical actions is carried out (known under the name «green revolution»). It allowed to increase considerably collecting foodgrain (in 1976 — 118 million kg). However hl use fruits of these actions. obr. large landowners and prosperous peasants fists. Ground mass of country people And. suffers from lack of land and malozemelya. According to official figures, 22% of country people have no earth, 62% — own sites to 5 acres (2 hectares); in hands of 3% of land owners 23,6% of the processed lands are concentrated.

The share of the industry gradually increases in gross national income. In 1974 — 1975 industrial production increased for 2,5%. For years of independence the oil-processing, chemical, aluminum industry, the majority of the industries of mechanical engineering are newly created, production of ferrous metals increased. Further development of metallurgy, power, mechanical engineering, the chemical industry, etc. continues. In development of national economy And. the important role belongs to the help of the USSR. The basis of public sector is made by the enterprises constructed or which are under construction with assistance of the USSR (apprx. 70 large objects). By 1972 in the country it is put into operation of 38 large industrial facilities constructed with the help and with assistance of the Soviet Union including steel works to Bhilai, the plants of heavy mechanical engineering in Ranchi, the mining equipment in Durgapur, heavy electric equipment in. A hard pitch, a complex of the blast furnace of steel works in Bokaro, etc.

At the enterprises built in And. with assistance of the USSR, 85% of products of heavy mechanical engineering are produced, 60% of electric equipment, 30% became, 20% of the electric power, are processed by 35% of oil.

The Soviet Union gave help in development of the national medical industry: the plants of surgical instruments in Madras, chemical - pharm, drugs — in Hyderabad, antibiotics — in are constructed by Rishikeshe.

And. — the multinational country, lives here several hundreds of the nations, nationalities and breeding groups, the largest of which are hindustanets, Telugu, Marathi, Bengalese, Tamils, bikharets, gudzharatets, a kannara, etc. Average population density 182 people on 1 sq.km (1975).

The most part of the population lives in rural areas, 20,6% (1974) — in the cities.

The natural movement of the population, according to official figures WHO, for 1950 — 1973 is presented in the table.

Ta6litsa. The NATURAL MOVEMENT of the POPULATION of INDIA, ACCORDING TO OFFICIAL FIGURES WHO, in 195 0 — 197 3 (on 100 0 people)


For years of independence in And. the general and child mortality decreased. Average life expectancy in 1951 — 1960 for men made 41,8 years and for women — 40,5 years, and in 1966 — 1970 for men — 48,2 years, for women — 46 years.

Incidence. Infectious and parasitic diseases still make the main problem of health care And. To 50 — the 60th in II. such dangerous infections as smallpox and cholera were eurysynusic. In 1973 epidemic of smallpox was noted in states Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal. From 84 675 cases of smallpox registered in 1973 in And., 94% were the share of these four states. In 1975 in the country only 1436 cases of smallpox were registered. Since 1976 diseases of smallpox were not observed. The Soviet Union directed for a number of years in And. a bovine vaccine for assistance in elimination of this disease. In April, 1977 the international commission confirmed, as. it is free from smallpox.

In the country epidemics of cholera are almost annually noted: in 1970 3524 cases, in 1971 — 2623, in 1972 — 2376, in 1973 — 3905, and in 1975 — 21 955 cases were registered (including 2320 from the death). The national program of fight against cholera was begun in the late sixties for and originally covered seven most endemic states: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Mysore, Orissa, to Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. Then it was extended to other states. Fight against malaria is begun in 1958 — 1959 Was 39 325 departments of elimination of malaria are organized, between to-rymi the territory of the country is divided. As a result of the held events positive takes were achieved: if in 1952 in the country there were 75 million patients with malaria, then in 1972 the number made them 0,74 million. In 1962 malaria mortality made 0,29 for 1000 zhit. against 8,79 in 1944. V I. fight against tuberculosis is widely started, a large number of tubercular clinics, including 264 regional antitubercular centers which carry out fight against tuberculosis in districts works; besides, 17 tubercular indicative and training centers intended for training of personnel and a dignity function. - a gleam. works (1972). Vaccination of BTsZh is an integral part of fight against tuberculosis. In the country 282 crews of vaccinators work, to-rymi in 1972 251 million people took tuberkulinovy samples and apprx. 170 million people of a provaktsinirovana.

The national program of fight against a leprosy is begun in 1969 — 1970 and is carried out in 23 states and allied territories, covering 25% of the most endemic districts; in detail 234 departments of fight against a leprosy at primary centers of health care and 1443 centers for inspection and treatment of a leprosy and a dignity. to education. The fight against trachoma begun in 1963 continues. By the end of 1972 preventive actions and treatment of trachoma captured 63,9 million zhit. In 1955 fight against filariases was begun, and by 1972 in the country 119 clinics on identification and treatment of a filariasis were organized. However this problem is not solved yet. V I. influence on epidemiology of a filariasis of the filaricides received by all population with edible salt is studied.

Hospital in Panipat.
Hospital in Chandigarh.

After almost ten-year absence in sowing. districts of the State of Bihar (1976) cases of a kala azar (a visceral leushmaniosis) were celebrated again. WHO gives help And. necessary pharmaceuticals for treatment of a kalaazar. An important problem for health care And. represent venereal diseases, especially in big cities, the industrial centers, seaports and places of a religious pilgrimage. Fight against these diseases is carried out in 172 clinics; in Delhi and Madras two centers for training of personnel and scientific research for venereal diseases (1972) work. Incidence of whooping cough, diphtheria, meningococcal infection, poliomyelitis, infectious hepatitis (1974) is high.

The organization of health care

the Government of the country plans development of health care through the Central medical office, the allied Minister of Health and Ministers of Health of states is a part to-rogo. The government gives financial and technical help to the governments of states and territories for implementation of programs of fight against infectious and other diseases. Mines-in of health care and planning of a family consists of department of health care and the central management of health services. The central management is headed by the executive director who has the assistant and several deputies. Mines-in of health care knows questions of medical education, activity of research establishments, directs bodies of health care of states in ports and the airports. Questions of health care on places are competence of an operating controls of states. The organization of health care in the district the chief physician and three of his assistants, in charge of heads rendering medical aid, protection of motherhood and the childhood and implementation of the program of planning of a family. The network of health services of the district makes a basis of the organization of medical aid in the country. Each district is divided into 15 — 20 sectors. Public health departments of sectors are headed by the doctor, on hand to-rogo there is a crew consisting of the 32nd a dignity. workers and 13 people of support personnel.

Hospital help to the population would be given in 14 286 and others to lay down. institutions in which 331 633 beds are developed (0,6 beds for 1000 zhit.), including 166 maternity homes on 8331 beds, 20 pediatric BCs on 1270 beds, 38 psychiatric BCs on 17 916 beds, 521 tubercular-tsa on 35 177 beds (1969). The main health services in rural areas are the centers of health care and clinics. In 1972 in And. there were 5192 primary centers of health care, from them 2951 had two doctors, 2101 — one doctor, 140 — only average medics (the name and content of work of healthcare institutions And. not completely correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR — see. Treatment and prevention facilities, abroad ).

Service of women and children was carried out in 48 482 institutions of protection of motherhood and the childhood, including in primary centers of health care and their branches, maternity homes, obstetric and children's departments of BC of the general type in the cities (1972).

The sanitary and anti-epidemic service is decentralized, is carried out by local authorities. The Soviet Union delivers in And. a vaccine against poliomyelitis, edge saved life to thousands of Indian children, and other inoculative materials.

Resort put the lake. In the territory And. there is a large number of sources of thermal and hyper thermal hydrogen-sulfide and uglekislo-serovodorodny mineral waters and climatic stations (resorts) which differ in a big variety natural to lay down. factors. For TB patients climatic stations of Dzharmapuri (1500 m above sea-level), Hakrator (2100 m), Almora (1800 m), Koonor and Kotagiri (1800 m) are created. Enjoy popularity the climatic station Simla located in the Himalayas (2100 m above sea-level), and the resort of Okalamund in Tamil Nadu (2200 m) where treatment of patients with overfatigue, the anemias and other diseases Known for seaside resorts is carried out And. are Walter on vost. the coast where there undergo treatment TB patients and Qatar of upper respiratory tracts, and Puri near Calcutta for patients with an idiopathic hypertensia, hron, diseases of kidneys, etc.

Medical shots

In 1973 in And. 138 000 doctors worked (1 doctor on 4162 zhit.), 8750 stomatologists. 00 000 druggists, 88 000 nurses, 70 000 assistants to midwifes (according to WHO data). Widely traditional medicine practices, and also for treatment exercises are applied yoga (see). In 1976 at the initiative of WHO representatives of the countries in which the traditional (national) medicine takes an important place in practice of health care were going to Delhi. It was recommended to promote realistic approach to traditional medicine for further improvement of rendering medical aid to the population. to study its positive sides, to promote implementation of knowledge and skills checked and being of value both in traditional, and in scientific medicine, and also to refuse harmful methods of treatment.

Medical education

Training of doctors is carried out at 83 state and 16 private medical schools which in 1972 let out 9587 doctors. Dentists are trained at 15 schools, druggists — in 34, nurses — in 253, laboratory assistants — in 25, X-ray technicians — in 20, assistants to nurses and midwifes — in 332, a dignity. assistants — in 35, assistants to dentists — at 15 schools. Annual inclusion in medical schools — apprx. 12 thousand persons.

Annually in the highest medical educational institutions of the USSR dozens of Indian citizens get an education and specialization. WHO also gives help And. in preparation of national shots (doctors and nurses). In particular, through WHO support of PI was given. in construction of national educational base and services for implementation of the program of medical abortion, scientific research on planning of a family and preparation of the corresponding scientific shots.

The chemical pharmaceutical industry having long-term experience develops the accelerated rates. Along with traditional drugs from medicinal vegetable raw materials the production of synthetic medicines increases. E.g., in 1973 — 1974 production of a key product of synthesis and fermentation of pharmaceuticals of one of leaders pharm, «Ambalal Sarabkhay Enterdrayzes Prayvit Limited» occupied 24,8% but to the relation to release of finished pharmaceutical products. In 1977 — 1978 this indicator increased to 26, (5%; the volume of production of this firm for the same period increased more than for 60%. It is paid to quality check of raw materials, semi-finished products and finished goods much attention. Products chemical - pharm, the industries are exported to many countries of the world, including the USSR, the countries of East and Western Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Nigeria), the Middle East (Kuwait, Egypt), Southeast Asia (Sri Lanka, Indonoziya, Philippines), etc.

A scientific medical research in And. are carried out in a number of research in-t, Vseindiysky the in-t of hygiene and public health care and school of tropical medicine in Calcutta, Ying t are most known to malaria and Ying t of diseases of a thorax in Delhi, Vseindiysky for in-t of psychiatry and National in in-t of tuberculosis in Bengalore, Ying t of leprosy and Ying t of cancer in Madras, Bacteriological in in-t of V. M. Havkin and the Indian anticarcinogenic research center in Bombay, the Central scientific research institute of Old Indian medicine in Yamnagare, the Center of a research of viruses in Cong, etc.

In 1963 in Delhi as the center of scientific research and training of personnel for implementation of actions for fight against infectious diseases it was created National by in-t of infectious diseases.

The Soviet Union gave help And. in studying tropical infectious and parasitic diseases. The Soviet scientists constantly cooperate with scientists And. in studying of these diseases at the modern level, in construction of the relevant medical and microbiological laboratories.

Expenses on health care in 1969 — 1974 averaged 7,27% of the state budget a year. From allocations for development of health care in 1969/70 — 1974/75 financial on fight against infectious diseases 11% of means, on a dignity were provided. education, training and scientific research of 8,5%, on ensuring work of primary centers of health care and BC of 14,3%, on improvement of water supply and sanitation of 35,2%, on implementation of the program for planning of a family of 27,3%.

National policy of health care And. it is directed to improvement of health care in rural areas.


Bibliography: The draft of the regular program and budget estimates for 1975 financial year, the lane with English, page 513, Geneva, WHO, 1974; The Fifth review of a condition of health care in the world (1969 — 1972), page 173, Geneva, WHO, 1977; Countries of the world, page 112, M., 1976; Statistical yearbook 1972, p. 68, 89, N. Y., 1973.

A.S. Khromov.

Яндекс.Метрика