INCIDENCE

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

INCIDENCE — the indicator of spread of the diseases revealed and registered within a year among the population in general or in separate groups (age, sexual, territorial, professional, etc.), estimated on a certain number of the population (100, 1000, 10 000, 100 000 zhit.). In Soviet dignity. to statistics of the concept «prevalence» of diseases, «morbidity» are used for designation of data on set of all diseases which were available among the population as for the first time revealed in this year, and it is long proceeding, revealed in previous years, with to-rymi patients addressed again in this year.

Studying 3. the population and its changes is a necessary condition for the correct organization of work of the district (shop) doctor, medical institutions, bodies of health care. Data about 3., along with data on mortality and physical. development, are the main in assessment of the state of health of the population and efficiency of actions for its protection and improvement. These data are widely used during the planning of programs of health care, work of bodies and healthcare institutions and certain doctors. For successful fight for decrease 3. and strengthening of health of the population is of great importance the analysis of the reasons 3., its dependences on conditions of the environment and production activity of the person on the basis of the social and hygienic researches conducted to lay down. - the prof., a dignity. - epid, and research establishments.

Set for the first time of the arisen diseases reflects influence of conditions of the environment better and during the comparison gives more correct idea of the loudspeaker 3. and results of fight for its decrease. Increase 3. at the account as for the first time the diseases revealed in this year, and it is long proceeding, revealed in previous years, with to-rymi patients addressed again in this year, does not mean adverse shifts in the state of health of the population at all, and on the contrary can be result of successful treatment of patients and extension of their life, and also increase in number of the patients staying on the dispensary registry (see. Medical examination ).

The main sources of information and by methods during the studying 3. are: a) negotiability of the population behind medical assistance — incidence according to negotiability; b) results of medical examinations of separate groups of the population — incidence according to medical examinations; c) statistical development of causes of death — incidence by data about causes of death, edge in itself cannot give rather extended and correct coverage of the state of health of the population, however she allows to find out what forms of diseases were the reason of lethal outcomes, to determine the frequency of a serious illness, to light tasks and the directions to lay down. - professional, works on decrease mortality (see) and to increase longevity (see); d) data on temporary disability of workers and employees in connection with a disease; e) the number, structure and a lethality of the hospitalized patients — incidence according to hospitals.

Distinguish the general 3. with disability and specially registered types 3. (infectious epid, and the major neepid. diseases). The general 3. takes the fullest detour of data. Completeness and quality of these data depend on the organization of medical aid, its availability to the population, specialization and qualification. Account and studying of the general 3. is an obligatory part of daily activity of medical institutions. A form of the account — the special statistical coupon.

Types of the account, methods and sources of studying 3. have the features which differ in ways of registration and the analysis of materials, but taken together with the account sanitarnodemografichesky supplied and the information on physical. development allow to provide complex and deep assessment of the state of health of the population. For statistical development 3. the population of a disease combine in groups and classes according to the classification constructed on the basis of modern achievements of science. In the USSR since 1962 the international statistical classification of diseases, injuries and causes of death (MKB) is used, edges it is periodically reconsidered.

History of studying of incidence

Studying 3. began with registration of infectious diseases, edges it was entered in a number of the European countries at the end of 19 century. Development of theoretical bases of studying 3. as characteristics of health of the population it is connected with names of the Russian scientists. Principles and technique of studying of the general 3. the population according to its negotiability were developed by territorial health officers E. A. Osipov, P. I. Kurkin, G. M. Bogoslovsky, etc. They distinguished the general 3., morbidity and patol, prevalence. The concept «morbidity» joined all diseases found and registered both in this calendar year and in previous years if patients addressed concerning them in this year again. Under patol, a prevalence all pathology including revealed by the doctor at mass surveys was understood. For registration of diseases the statistical card served, in to-ruyu the doctor brought the diagnosis made at the first address of the patient. P. I. Kurkin who developed and implemented in practice the main methodical methods of studying of the general 3., the most difficult and valuable type of the account 3., specified relationship 3. and mortality, having assigned to causes of death a supporting role.

In pre-revolutionary Russia where in the cities the privately practicing medicine prevailed, statistical researches had limited character. Despite it, the materials of the accounting of negotiability of country people collected and developed by territorial health officers for many years are of great scientific value.

After Great October socialist revolution premises for expansion of researches 3 were created. for holding nation-wide actions for protection and strengthening of health of the people. In studying of the general 3. the population a big role played the social and demographic researches conducted in certain territories of the country, hl the USSR. obr. in years population censuses (see).

In premilitary 1939 — 1940 studying 3. it was carried out in many large cities of the country in which lived apprx. 10% of the population. In 1959 3. it was investigated in 88 cities and in a number of rural districts. This research, as well as complex studying of health of the population in 1969 — 1971, was based on system of the current statistics 3.

System of the current statistics of the general 3. it was entered by M3 of the USSR into practice of work of all healthcare institutions in 1954. Introduction of obligatory system of registration 3. promoted deeper studying of the state of health of the population. Studying 3. became a part of the current work of doctors and served improvement of quality of diagnosis and selection of persons in need in medical examination, etc. Became possible systematic overseeing 3. and analysis 3. on each medical site.

In a basis of a research 3. the specified final diagnoses confirmed with observations and researches laid down.

Along with total number of diseases, with to-rymi patients addressed in this year, that their part was defined, to-ruyu make revealed for the first time since it reflects dependence 3 better. from working conditions and life.

Long-term use of system of obligatory registration 3. showed its weak points caused by features of the organization of medical aid to the population in the large cities and insufficient exchange of information between various institutions participating in rendering medical aid to the same patient: there was a duplicated accounting of the same diseases, underestimation in territorial medical offices of the diseases considered in MSCh and specialized institutions. M3 of the USSR since 1970 reconsidered system of the account and use of data during the studying 3. The leaf for record of the specified diagnoses was kept without change, statistical coupons began to be filled in on the diseases which are subject to dispensary observation. Total (about all registered diseases), and the analysis 3 was excluded from reports. it was oriented to use of aggregated and individual data during the planning and assessment of medical examination.

Studying 3. in the world is one of aspects of activity of WHO. In 1951 WHO held a special conference on statistics 3., and since the 2nd Committee of experts on a dignity. to statistics practically all subsequent committees discussed methodical and technical issues of studying 3. But especially in details they were considered by the 5, 6 and 12 committees.

Considering that the terms «incidence» and «prevalence» (morbidity) owing to their wide semantic value are not always used correctly, in a dignity. to statistics it was decided to apply the terms defining a being of a question, recommended by the 5th Committee of WHO experts in 1956, and having unambiguous value in English language: incidence — again revealed diseases; prevalence — all diseases registered at the population (point prevalence — for a certain date, period prevalence — for a certain span). the 6th Committee of WHO experts on sap. to statistics noted that 3. it can be measured by three indicators: number of patients, number of diseases (episodes or attacks of a disease) and lasting these diseases (in days, weeks etc.). The 10th Committee considered questions of use of a sampling method during the carrying out researches 3., and the 11th estimated possibilities of use epid, methods in studying hron, diseases. The international classification of diseases since the 6th review (1948) began to intend also for studying 3.

The technique of studying of incidence

In system of the state health care of the socialist countries statistics has ample opportunities for studying 3. In 1969 — 1971 complex selective studying 3 was carried out to the USSR., captured more than 4% of the population of the country living more than in 100 «nests» (districts). For definition of territorial districts and volume of selective researches the special technique is used: a) data on addresses to the doctor not in one year, and for three were collected that provided fuller account hron, diseases; b) as primary document «The leaf for record of the specified diagnoses» was applied, data from to-rogo were transferred to the encoded form; c) selection of all information (including materials of hospitalization) was carried out on the person, final selection of sampling units was carried out on initial letters of surnames; d) enciphering and data processing for unity of approach and treatments were carried out on a centralized basis; e) for specification real 3. in separate «nests» teams of doctors conducted comprehensive examinations of a part of the studied population using laboratory researches; e) in addition to data about 3., additional materials of social and hygienic and economic character were exposed to the analysis.

Studying 3. on negotiability, napr, in the Tambov region, showed that on each 100 diseases at industrial workers at medical examinations 57,7 more diseases, and at page were revealed - x. workers respectively 257,4 diseases. Both groups have a structure 3., revealed at medical examinations, differs from 3. according to negotiability. Among the diseases revealed at medical examinations diseases dominate hron: diseases of a nervous system, sense bodys, digestion and blood circulatory system. Among the diseases revealed on negotiability, first place is won by diseases of a respiratory organs (at the expense of flu and acute respiratory diseases), a musculoskeletal system and connecting fabric, digestive organs. At the same time in this research it is established that 3. industrial workers on negotiability higher than 3. page - x. working and lower than 3. on medical examinations. It is explained by features of the organization of medical aid, distinctions in age and sex structure, and also unequal still social and hygienic living conditions in the city and the village.

At complex assessment a certain value is represented by information on the list of the hospitalized patients, on to-ruyu, in addition to objective factors, some other circumstances (security of the population with hospital beds, domestic conditions, age composition of the population) influences.

The analysis of the data on structure hospitalized in hospitals of the USSR M3 system in 1974 shows that children have the greatest number hospitalized it is the share of diseases of a respiratory organs (48,9%), at adults the greatest ud. weight is made by diseases of a respiratory organs (15,3%), digestion (15,2%) and the blood circulatory systems (15,2%).

During the studying 3. information on number, structure and distribution of the population allowing to define the indicators necessary for the full and detailed analysis is important. Owing to it special researches of the general 3. are, as a rule, dated for a year of carrying out a population census.

Processing of big arrays of information during the studying of the general 3. and its types, need of calculation of indicators and selection for a number of programs, information is as like as two peas facilitated by implementation in health care of the COMPUTER.

There is a possibility of creation in the long term of registers of diseases, data banks which can change further techniques and technology of studying 3.

The fullest idea of the level of health of the population is given by complex studying 3. on the basis of all types of statistical materials, taking into account influence of conditions of the environment, i.e. in social and hygienic aspect.

Studying of incidence in the socialist countries is an integral part of sanitary and statistical researches. At the same time experience of the USSR is widely used. Registration of diseases on special coupons was entered into NRB in policlinics in 1958 and same year the analysis 3 was carried out. population of one of districts of Sofia. In the next years studying 3. both city, and country people it was carried out on the basis of the data of negotiability added with materials of medical examinations. In 1969 — 1970 selective studying 3 was carried out. 200 thousand inhabitants living in 400 «nests».

Systematic researches 3. are carried out to the Party of Russian Taxpayers (1960 — 1963, 1964, 1968 etc.). In 1964 they captured 835 thousand people; in 1968 the diseases revealed within several days were registered at all residents of the country.

Registration and the accounting of diseases in all medical institutions were for the first time entered into SRR in 1949 — 1951. In 1954 — 1958 selective processing of materials of the current registration was carried out, and in 1959 — 1961 special comprehensive examination of 1 million inhabitants (St. 5% of the population) was conducted, at Krom, in addition to use of data of negotiability behind medical aid, medical examinations were carried out.

The registration of negotiability which formed a basis for the subsequent studying 3 was entered into ChSSR in 1953. [districts Svytava (1955, 1965), Brno (1958 — 1959), Koshitsa, etc.].

Works on studying 3. are carried out also to VNR, GDR, MNR.

Studying of incidence in the capitalist countries. Statistics 3. in the majority of the capitalist countries till 50th 20 century almost did not develop in force of lack of rather accurately organized system of medical aid and a limited possibility of use of it for wide circles of the population. Private medical practitioners for saving the income often evaded from the message of the minimum information, even about infectious diseases. Studying, other types 3 was more widely carried out., napr, the list of the hospitalized patients, and also the reasons of mortality. Studying of the general 3. it is carried out only in some countries [Canada, 1950 — 1951; Denmark, 1951 — 1954; Japan (since 1953 annually), etc.]. Researches were conducted on the basis of poll of selective groups of the population. Selective studying of health of the population is carried out permanently since 1958 to the USA where the St. 20 thousand families is annually interviewed, and families included in selection in a certain sequence change. For obtaining special data by mobile teams of specialists several thousands of people are annually inspected. The method of poll allows to obtain quite detailed information on social problems, about the dwelling, but gives the incomplete characteristic of data about health as the description of symptoms and self-diagnostics of diseases of the population is the cornerstone of it that contradicts the principles of medicine. In England where in the late fifties organized public service of health care, in 1955 — 1956 studying 3 was carried out. on the basis of their addresses to general practitioners apprx. 380 thousand people; the similar research was repeated in 1974. In France and Finland studying 3. it is carried out according to insurance on a case of a disease that is close to studying 3. on negotiability.

Infectious (epidemic) incidence

Accounting of this look 3. is based on system of operational information. In the USSR all subjects to the obligatory notification, registration and the account infectious diseases are divided into the following groups: diseases about which each case in local SES messages with reduction of a detailed information become (a typhoid, paratyphus, dysentery, enterita, diarrhea, a tularemia, a malignant anthrax, a brucellosis, diphtheria, measles, whooping cough, meningitis, encephalitis, infectious hepatitis, scarlet fever, tetanus, poliomyelitis, rage, malaria, a hay fever, rickettsioses, including a sapropyra); diseases about which from to lay down. - professional, institutions only summary (quantitative) data (flu, acute upper respiratory tract infections) arrive; quarantine diseases at which emergence in the territory of the country extraordinary reports are submitted (plague, cholera, smallpox, yellow fever, a typhinia).

The message on an infectious disease or on suspicion to it is directed by the doctor or the average medic who revealed the infectious patient irrespective of whether the patient with the resident of the district of service is, the visitor he or lives in other district of the city.

Information goes to regional or city SES personnel territorial to lay down. - professional, institutions or personnel of medical institutions of other departments which are in the territory serviced by this SES. The specified order pursues the aim to concentrate all information in one place and by that to provide conditions for the immediate organization protivoepid, actions.

In the USSR and in many other countries the special form of the notice for the account infectious 3 is established. Notices use in the operational purposes and for drawing up «Reports on the movement of infectious diseases» which go SES, and the last to higher bodies of health care. Reports join data only on the confirmed diseases. In addition to the reports containing a specification epid, the analysis, detailed development of materials of the specified notices, and also cards of «Epidemiological inspection of the center of an infectious disease» is carried out. As a result of development of these documents there are data showing distribution of patients on a sex, age, occupations, the residence and according to many other characteristics.

Incidence of the major not epidemic diseases

Incidence of the major not epidemic diseases as operational, state statistics in a number of the countries is considered especially.

The main reasons for such account are: frequency of distribution, weight of outcomes and social characteristic of diseases. As a rule, these diseases demand early identification, comprehensive inspection of the patient, his capture on the dispensary account, constant observation behind it and special treatment.

The USSR is subject to such special account: active tuberculosis, veins. diseases, mycoses (trichophytosis, microsporia, favus), trachoma, leprosy, cancer and other malignant new growths, mental diseases. The doctors who revealed these diseases are obliged to send in specialized clinics, dispensary departments at the scheduled time of the notice on the patient with for the first time in life the established diagnosis of a disease. In clinics the diagnosis is specified; patients at whom the disease is confirmed are registered, behind them observation is established and treatment is carried out.

Time in a month of the notice on again revealed patients are sent to the Region a clinic (antitubercular, oncological, dermatovenerologic, tracheomatous, etc.) where the card file intended for control of completeness of the account, timeliness of coverage by medical examination, the solution of operational tasks and also for drawing up annual or semi-annual reports on again revealed patients is conducted: further it serves for the accounting of the contingents consisting under observation.

Reports contain data on individual diseases, their stages and localization, gender and age, the residence of the patient. On the basis of these data receive indicators 3., the population estimated on 100 thousand.

Incidence with long disability

Incidence with long disability (see. Disability ) is one of indicators of health of the population, criterion for evaluation of medical examination, efficiency of the carried-out treatment, disease severity. Disability is established medical labor commission of experts (see), edges is under authority of the Ministry of Social Welfare. The direction on VTEK is made according to indications medical and consulting commission (see) to lay down. institutions.

Studying of materials about disability allows to judge levels, structure, dynamics and the nature of process of long disability of the population of a certain territory.

The statistical report which makes VTEK of the district or the city contains information on number examined and re-examined, about results of the held events, about distribution which are initially recognized by disabled people on age, public groups, diseases etc.

On the basis of these data the main indicators are defined: an indicator for the first time recognized as disabled people from among workers and employees on 1000 insured; an indicator of all disabled people (primary and earlier recognized) on 1000 insured; degree (weight) of disability as distribution on groups of disability; the reasons of disability in forms of diseases; transfer from one group in another in connection with change of severity — the frequency of recovery of working capacity.

Incidence with temporary disability

Incidence with temporary disability, or temporary disability (see) — owing to a disease, accident (an injury, poisoning) or because of other reasons caused by the legislation on social insurance, which are not allowing to carry out professional work [to - and puerperal the periods, patient care, a quarantine and a bacteriocarrier, sanatorium treatment after a serious illness (rehabilitation), abortion, temporary transfer for other work in connection with a disease of tuberculosis or an occupational disease, prosthetics with the room in a prosthetic and orthopedic hospital].

Unlike the general 3., this look 3. includes only data on those diseases of workers, employees and collective farmers who caused absence from work, and does not contain data on diseases of which were not followed by temporary disability.

Its level is influenced by various factors: dignity. - a gigabyte. working conditions, organization of labor processes, conditions of life, organization and quality of medical aid, quality of medical examination and list of workers. Unit of account 3. with temporary disability each case of disability which is registered in is leaf of disability (see).

On the basis of the legislation on social insurance to exempt workers and employees from work in all cases of temporary disability the doctors having the right to it who give a leaf of disability or the reference in the cases provided by the current legislation can; the reference is also the document certifying temporary disability.

Leaves of disability irrespective of the place of receiving are subject to the account in the place of work (including and unpaid leaves of disability which shall be repaid and be stored on an equal basis with the paid leaves). It is the premises providing the full accounting of all cases of temporary disability of workers and employees; on the industrial enterprises and institutions, on the industries of the national economy and administrative districts of the country.

The monthly report on temporary disability is made by factory and local committees of labor unions with the assistance of doctors on the basis of the leaves of disability (paid and unpaid), given out to workers and employees not less than for one day. The summary report is formed quarterly regional (regional), and in the republics which do not have regional division — republican committees of industry labor unions; copies of reports present to the relevant regional (regional) public health departments and min.-va health care of autonomous, federal republics.

The form of the report on temporary disability repeatedly changed, brought in it or excluded registration separately of some diseases. Since 1973 the new form of the report on temporary disability, N a cut is entered more wide range nozol, the forms (26 diseases) corresponding to MKB-8 is presented. The new form of the report is adapted for machining. Since 1969 the accounting of losses on number of calendar days is entered that has basic value as the unity and comparability of the workers and employees given about temporary disability on all industries of the national economy irrespective of the schedule of their work is provided (5-, 6-day week, work on the sliding schedule etc.).

On the large enterprises having MSCh and also in the medical institutions servicing the industrial enterprises, the profound analysis 3. with temporary disability carry out according to cards of the politsevy (personal) accounting of temporary disability. At the same time development of data is conducted according to wider nomenclature of diseases taking into account a sex, age, a profession, an experience and other factors of working conditions and life; frequency rate 3 is defined. with temporary disability in general and on nozol. to forms; the contingents come to light it is long and often ill within a year and needing improvement, dispensary observation etc. Profound development of materials is carried out according to the appropriate program by the mechanized way with use of the modern computer equipment, including COMPUTER.

Profound analysis 3. allows to find out the reasons of spread of diseases from all collective or its separate groups, it is correct to plan activity of MSCh, to purposefully carry out medical and recreational actions, to study influence of profvrednost on emergence and development of the prof. of incidence, especially in new industries.

In the analysis of the report on temporary disability the following main indicators are defined: 1) number of cases 3. on 100 working (absolute number of cases 3. only on primary leaves of disability it is multiplied on 100 and is divided into average number of working); 2) number of days of disability on 100 working (the absolute number of days of disability on primary leaves of disability and on leaves «continuation» is multiplied on 100 and is divided into average number of working) and 3) an indicator of average duration of a case 3. with temporary disability (the number of days is divided into number of cases of disability).

It is known that not any disease is followed by temporary disability. Moreover, the same disease not causes temporary disability in all.

Studying of the factors influencing formation of level and character 3. with temporary disability, and ways of its decrease has great state and social and economic value for the characteristic trudopoter, a rational expenditure of means of social insurance, improvement and decrease 3. working and the maximum preservation at workers of the working days on production.

In the USSR as a result of implementation of large social and economic actions, increase in welfare of the population, improvement of working conditions, life, quality of medical aid, holding broad recreational actions, environmental controls decrease (and in some cases elimination) 3 is noted. with temporary disability on a row nozol, forms.

Features of incidence of the military personnel

Features of incidence of the military personnel are defined by a number of factors among which are of great importance: specifics of conditions and the nature of military work and life in types of Armed Forces and types of military forces in military and peace time; categories of list of the military personnel (privates, warrant officers, ensigns, officers) and their distribution on gender and age; quality of medical providing (to lay down. - the prof., a dignity. - a gigabyte. and anti-epidemic); volume and character dignity. promotion and dignity. educations and others.

3. the military personnel it is characterized by medico-statistical data on the level (frequency) and the nature (structure) of diseases among the military personnel in general or their separate qualitatively homogeneous groups (on age, an experience of service in Armed Forces, to category of structure, military specialties, etc.) in military and peace time.

A basis of medico-statistical data about 3. the military personnel is made by medical diagnoses of each case registered by the doctor in military-medical establishment. Statistical development of these data is carried out according to the classification and the nomenclature of diseases accepted for documents of the military-medical reporting in military and peace time.

Depending on unit of statistical observation and character of starting materials in the conditions of peace time distinguish and study the following types 3. military personnel: 1) negotiability (all sum of the registered requests for medical aid concerning diseases and injuries for the calendar period); 2) the general 3. (set of diseases of the military personnel who arose and registered for the first time during their service in Armed Forces — so-called primary addresses); 3) 3. statsionirovanny patients (the sum of the patients directed to hospitalization regardless of a type of a hospital); 4) 3. with temporary loss trudo-, fighting capacity (the sum of cases and days of liberation from all types of works and occupations for the term of not less than one working day concerning diseases, medical consultations, a sick leave etc.). Are studied also this dispensary statistics 3. the military personnel (the number of the being ill persons, frequency rate of their negotiability, duration of diseases, etc.).

In wartime the main attention is paid to the account and the comprehensive analysis of the diseases which served as the reason of leaving of the serviceman out of operation for the term of not less than one days. They make noncombat a dignity. losses, or losses by patients. Diseases without loss of fighting capacity (out-patient 3.) usually are not studied, though are considered in all first-aid posts (PMP, MSB, etc.).

In last wars of losses from diseases was much more, than from fighting defeats. So, in the Russian army the ratio between wounded and patients in the Russian-Turkish war of 1877 — 1878 made 1:18,2, in Russian-Japanese 1904 — 1905 — 1:2, World War I of 1914 — 1917 — 1:1,3. In the Soviet Army in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945 it is a ratio sharply changed and made 1:0,3 that is explained by various level of development of military equipment, conditions of fighting activity, and also the level of development of medicine, and in particular prevention of diseases. So, if in wars 19 and the beginnings of 20 centuries a basis 3. made infectious diseases, during the Great Patriotic War — various diseases of internals. 3. infectious (epidemic) diseases thanks to preventive actions was very low.

In the conditions of war using weapons of mass destruction 3. the military personnel will significantly change in view of an originality of a fighting and medical situation, emergence a cut is caused by character of weapon, military equipment and fighting activity of troops.

In peace time the level, character and structure 3. the military personnel depending on a condition of above-mentioned factors change. So, in the Russian army especially big specific weight is 3. the military personnel was occupied veins. diseases, diseases of a respiratory organs (including pulmonary tuberculosis), diseases of skin and hypodermic cellulose, digestive organs.

In the Soviet Army easy forms of diseases, and level 3 prevail. it is insignificant (from 30 to 50% of the military personnel during military service and on the fleet do not address for medical aid at all).


Bibliography: Alexandrov M. B. Metodika of complex studying of incidence, M., 1963, bibliogr.; Poor M. S., Savvin S. I. and the Banner in G. I. Social and hygienic characteristic of incidence of urban and country people, M., 1975; Bogatyrev I. D. Incidence and lecheb-but-preventive maintenance of industrial workers, M., 1962; Theological S. M. of ides of river. Incidence of the population of the Moscow province and Moscow, M., 1929, bibliogr.; B r at sh l and nanosecond to and I am L. A., M e e r to about in A. N. and About in-chinsky M. V. State of health of the population of Moscow, M., 1946; Questions of studying of incidence, under the editorship of P. A. Kuvshinnikov, M., 1956; Gavrilov N. I., etc. Technique of studying and way of decrease in incidence of industrial workers, M., 1969, bibliogr.; Materials about health of the population, under the editorship of P. I. Nalyyu, etc., M., 1961; M e r to about in A. M. and Polyakov L. E. Sanitary statistics, L., 1974; Methodical bases of studying of health of the population, under the editorship of A. F. Serenko, M., 1968; CaseSemifat tracingbut also. Page and Church G. F. Statistical information in management of healthcare institutions, M., 1976; Smulevich B. Ya. Incidence, mortality and physical development of the population, M., 1957; Hotsyanov L. K. and Ammoreyskaya A. I. Methodical instructions on carrying out the account, development and the analysis of incidence with temporary disability, M., 1954.

G. F. Church, B. N. Kazakov, A. E. Shakhgeldyants; L. E. Polyakov (soldier.).

Яндекс.Метрика