From Big Medical Encyclopedia

INCENDIARY MIXES — pyrotechnic structures, combustible substances and their mixes which during the burning develop the high temperature and an intensive flame sufficient for ignition of surrounding objects. In military science 3. pages are applied to defeat and extermination of manpower, military equipment, defensive and engineering works, industrial, administrative, rear and other facilities of the opponent. 3. pages are equipped incendiary ammunition: bullets, artillery shells, mines, bombs, etc.

3. pages were applied in China in wars of the V—IV centuries BC. In Europe incendiary rockets in wars against Napoleon were widely used. In Russian army of the rocket with 3. pages of a design

of the general A. D. Zasyadko were used in the Russian-Turkish war (1828 — 1829) at a siege of Varna, Brailova and other Turkish fortresses. Mass use 3. villages received during the first (1914 — 1918) and especially the second (1939 — 1945) world wars. 3 were widely used. page amer. troops during the fighting in Korea (1950 — 1953), Vietnam (1964 — 1974) and the Israeli army in the Middle Eastern conflict (1967).

3. page depending on the components entering them and oxygen requirement of air during the burning it is possible to subdivide into two basic groups: the mixes with oxidizers capable to burn without access of oxygen of air, and the mixes burning only in the presence of oxygen of air.

The termite and termitno-incendiary mixes in which as an oxidizer serve oxygen-containing salts concern to the first group. At the heart of action of a termite and termitno-incendiary structures H opened in 1865 by the domestic chemist lies. N. Beketov reaction of aluminothermy — ability of metal oxide (iron) to interact with powdery aluminum with calorification:

8Al + 3Fe 3 O 4 —> 4Al 2 O 3 + 9Fe + 774 kcal.

Ignition of a termite happens at a temperature apprx. 1200 — 1300 °. If to cool a termite below this temperature, then reaction of aluminothermy and burning stop.

Burning of a termite and termitno-incendiary mixes proceeds very violently, almost without flame, with spraying of drops of the burning metal. Developing high temperature, these 3. pages are capable to burn light armor, to melt off metal parts of military equipment, to cause cracking of concrete and a brick.

Alloy the electron applied in a combination with a termite, and also mixes on the basis of organic combustible, metallized 3 concern to the second group. page and self-igniting structures on the basis of white phosphorus.

In structure 3. pages on the basis of organic combustible usually enter flammable hydrocarbons (gasoline, kerosene, benzene, polystyrene, ligroin, etc.). A number of these hydrocarbons can be applied in the liquid state and a look so-called viscous 3. page.

Liquid 3. pages are applied to defeat of tanks, armored personnel carriers, self-propelled tools, etc. Their ignition is carried out by means of white phosphorus or incendiary bullets.

In viscous 3. pages liquid hydrocarbons zagushchatsya by means of special coagulants. The most widespread knitting 3. the page is napalm, the basis to-rogo is made by gasoline. As a thickener aluminum salts naphthenic, palmitic and olein to - t are used (the name of the mix «napalm» consists of the initial syllables specified two first to - t); this thickener in army of the USA is organic. Also other thickeners, napr, the octol representing aluminum salt isocaprylic to - you, and isobutylmethacrylate (AE polymer) are known.

During the war in Vietnam amer. troops applied advanced gel — the napalm «B» received by mixing of polystyrene, gasoline and benzene (in proportions 2:1:1) with an organic thickener. For receiving 3. the page of various viscosity powder of a thickener increases to a combustible liquid in number from 3 to 13%, and for napalm «B» to 50% of weight. The liquid mixtures containing 3 — 6% of a thickener are applied by means of rantsevy and tank flame throwers, jellylike (5 — 8% of a thickener) — to equipment of aviation bombs and thin-walled tanks (tanks) dumped from airplanes, pasty (9 — 13% of a thickener) — artillery shells, land mines, mines and incendiary cartridges. At preparation of napalm for the purpose of acceleration of coagulation of gasoline to mix the so-called peptizator (0,5 — 1% of the weight of mix) increases, cresol and some alcohols are a part to-rogo. The peptizator improves viscosity and glutinosity of napalm and allows to prepare mixes at air temperature to — 17 °. Napalm is steady against the splitting-up action of explosion, its ignition comes from a vyshibny charge of trinitrotoluene, the powdery magnet, or from white phosphorus is added to Krom. Napalm well sticks to various objects, including to smooth metallic surfaces, to clothes and skin of the person.

Napalm bombs of small caliber are located in the special self-revealing cartridges (from 16 to 100 pieces and more) which at explosion scatter and create multiple seats of fire. Large-caliber bombs and tanks are applied odinochno.

For equipment of artillery incendiary ammunition the metallized thickened napalm called still by pyro-gel is used. It is received by addition to usual napalm of powder of magnesium, liquid asphalt and heavy mineral oils.

3. pages on the basis of white phosphorus are capable to self-ignite. However rather low temperature developed by these 3. page during the burning, it is not sufficient for firing of hardly flammable materials. Therefore they are applied by hl. obr. for an arson of wooden constructions, open tanks with fuel are also added to others 3. page for their self-ignition.

During the Great Patriotic War as self-igniting 3. the page, a cut were equipped incendiary bottles, solution of sulfur in phosphorus, known under the name of mix KS was applied. For the prevention of reignition 3. the pages containing white phosphorus use of CuSO4 solution (a copper vitriol) is the most effective. At interaction 3. the page with a copper vitriol copper a dense film is besieged on the surface of phosphorus, preventing contact with oxygen of air therefore repeated self-ignition of phosphorus becomes impossible. Characteristic of some 3. the page and components which are their part it is provided in the table.

The damages caused by incendiary mixes

At assessment of the general influence 3. the page on the person should mean its the strongest psikhol, the effect leading to reactions of incorrect adaptation (not purposeful firing, catalepsy, panic behavior, etc.). Excessive temperature increase of air in the seat of fire can be followed at the person by sharp disturbance of thermal control, changes fiziol, and biochemical, processes, disturbance of exchange of electrolytes, and also a poisoning with carbon monoxide (see. Carbon monoxide ). At local influence 3. pages cause heavy thermal burns of the III—IV degree (see. Burns ) with various area of defeat, often followed shock (see), loss of consciousness, asphyxia (see) and acute toxaemia.

Extent of development of local processes at burns depends on features of the striking action, influence on fabrics of the components which are a part 3. page, and the joined infection. At napalm burns necrotic fabrics have brown-gray color, are surrounded with a zone of a hyperemia and sharply expressed hypostasis of adjacent fabrics. E.g., at localization of a burn on a face already in a few minutes because of the developed hypostasis the century becomes impossible opening of eyes. Rejection of necrotic fabrics comes to an end only on 4 —-y to week.

All napalm burns heal slowly, with suppuration and formation of pruritic keloid cicatrixes (see. Keloid ). At a histologic research of hems the sharp thickening of a derma, existence in it knotty, rounded shape of fibromas, not numerous, sharply deformed fibers of sensory nerves, the remains of sweat glands in the form of small cysts is noted.

The burns caused by a termite and an electron more often happen the III—IV degrees and occupy, as a rule, the limited space. Phosphorus burns at which the general condition of the victim is aggravated with toxic and necrotic effect of the phosphorus which is soaked up in an organism through a burn surface differ in special weight.

During the rendering the first medical aid it is necessary to extinguish first of all burning 3. page in the ways stated in the table. At the same time it is not necessary to try to delete burning 3. page from a body or clothes by means of any objects and furthermore the unprotected hands to extinguish a flame a small amount of water. These wrong actions can increase the area and weight of a burn only considerably. For the prevention of burns of respiratory tracts it is necessary to breathe through clothes (a sleeve, a floor of an overcoat, a coat) or it is possible to hang the head closer to the earth where temperature is slightly lower.

For protection of the burned surface against pollution the dry sterile bandage of a first-aid dressing kit or a special burn bandage with the sticking layer metallized not internal is applied it. In the absence of the specified dressing materials the bandage can be applied from any other pure fabric (a towel, a shirt, etc.). It is not necessary to clear the burned surface of sand, the remains of not burned down napalm and the stuck clothes.

If in 3. the page is available phosphorus that is recognized by dense white smoke, the site of a burn with not burned down 3. pages close the bandage moistened 3% with solution of a copper vitriol or hydro-sodium carbonate. In the absence of a vitriol and soda the bandage is moistened with water. Remove a bandage in these cases only in the conditions allowing to remove completely the remains not burned down 3. page from an affected area. The victim should enter morphine, Promedolum or analgetic means from individual first-aid kit (see), heat to cover, give to drink. At an apnoea that is a consequence of poisoning with toxic combustion products 3 more often. pages, perform CPR. After rendering victims to the first medical aid evacuate in the next first-aid post or-tsu.

At the stages giving the first medical assistance correct the bandage applied as the first medical aid or apply new emulsion salve dressing, enter antitetanic serum and anatoxin, antibiotics and analgetics, and also hold the elementary antishock events (warming, drink of alkaline and salt mix and strong tea, injection of colloid plasma substitutes). At burns of respiratory tracts bilateral vagosympathetic blockade is shown (see. Novocainic blockade ), and at its inefficiency and threat of asphyxia — tracheostomy (see).

At the stages rendering the qualified medical aid, to persons in a condition of burn shock carry out complex antishock treatment, a basis to-rogo the infusional therapy directed to recovery of a hemodynamics (injection of plasma substitutes, Crystalloid solutions, glucose and novocaine), and also actions for the prevention and treatment of an acute renal failure (administration of osmotic diuretics — Mannitolum, urea, sodium thiosulphate) and corrections of a metabolic acidosis makes (intravenous injection of 5% of solution of hydrosodium carbonate, etc.). Infusional therapy shall be combined with administration of anesthetics, antihistaminic and cardiacs.

At damage of airways the list to lay down. actions is defined by character patol, changes and extent of dysfunction of a throat. It can include rinsing by solution of soda and greasing by a liquid paraffin of an oral cavity and throat, alkaline or alkaline and oil inhalations, injections intravenously of Prednisolonum or intramusculary a hydrocortisone, introduction of an Euphyllinum and antihistaminic drugs. At strong indications of a stenosis of a throat the Tracheostomy is shown; at the phenomena of a fluid lungs — intravenously Mannitolum, corticosteroid hormones.

In the presence of symptoms of poisoning with toxic combustion products 3. the page to lay down. actions can include inhalations of oxygen or Carbogenum, intravenous administration of solutions of glucose, novocaine, Calcium chloratum, for removal of excitement and at the phenomena of wet brain — intravenously Mannitolum, lytic cocktail, at spasms — solution of barbamyl intravenously or Chlorali hydras in an enema; at disorders of breath — an Euphyllinum intravenously and artificial ventilation of the lungs. The victim enter also vitamins and cardiacs.

At victims with the deep burns of a trunk or extremities which are followed by disturbance krovo-and lymphokineses or complicating respiratory excursions of a thorax the necrotomy is made (a section squeezing the subject fabrics of a burn scab). Struck 3. page, not needing the resuscitation and antishock help, at these stages the first medical assistance is given.

The subsequent treatment of victims from 3. the page (would) be carried out by the standard methods in specialized burn hospitals where treatment of a burn disease and its complications, and also operational recovery of the integument lost as a result of deep burns (is performed see. Burns ).

Protection of staff of troops and the civilian population against incendiary mixes is provided with system of actions for protection against weapons of mass destruction (see. Protection against means of war of defeat ). The field defensive works built by troops (trenches, blindages, various shelters) completely protect people from hit 3. page on a body and clothes (see. Collective means of protection ). The land relief (holes, ravines, etc.), a vegetable cover (a dense bush of deciduous breeds, trees), various constructions can also significantly weaken the striking effect 3. page, and in some cases to prevent their hit on people.

In settlements for the prevention of possible fire and fires in houses, office and production buildings precautionary fire preventions shall be held (cleaning of rooms and the territory of flammable materials, the correct maintenance of fire-prevention stock, etc.). The staff of troops and the population shall be trained in methods of suppression of the incendiary ammunition and ignitions caused by them.

Table. The characteristic of incendiary mixes, their striking action and first aid at defeats

Bibliography: Dolinin V. A. A clinical picture, the organization and volume of medical care at defeat by napalm, Voyen. - medical zhurn., No. 12, page 33, 1975; Novikov M. V. and to the Horse-to about in V. I. Fire-throwing and incendiary weapon, M., 1957; Yuryev B. G. Incendiary substances and means of their use, Zhurn. Vsesoyuz, chemical about-va of D. I. Mendeleyev, t. 13, No. 6, page 648, 1968; Mikhaylov P. Napalmovi from-garyaniya, Sofia, 1959.

V. A. Dolinin.