IMSHENETSKY Alexander Aleksandrovich

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

IMSHENETSKY Alexander Aleksandrovich (sort. in 1905) — the Soviet microbiologist, the academician of Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1962), Hera of Socialist Work (1975).

IMSHENETSKY Alexander Aleksandrovich

Ended Voronezh un-t in 1926. Since 1930 works in Ying-those microbiology of Academy of Sciences of the USSR; since 1949 the director in-that.

Scientific works of A. A. Imshenetsky are devoted to studying of a structure of bacteria, biology of thermophilic microorganisms, microbic decomposition of cellulose. Studying a structure of bacteria with use of a comparative and cytologic method, it revealed fundamental differences of the nuclear device of bacteria from cellular kernels of the higher organisms and included bacteria in group of prokariot (organisms with not properly executed structure of a cellular kernel). It for the first time (1954) carried out enzymic oxidation of ammonia and hydroxylamine in nitrite by means of cell-free preparations from nitrifying bacteriums; comparative study of thermophilic and mesophilic bacteriums is carried out; the role of myxobacteria in the course of aerobic decomposition of cellulose in the soil is revealed. He studied their physiology, development cycles, features of a structure, found ability of cellulose bacteria to form reducing sugars. A number of works of A. A. Imshenetsky is devoted to clarification of patterns of formation of useful mold fungi under the influence of UF-radiation, to obtaining polyploid cultures of yeast and some bacteria. The researches of the enzymes produced by various microorganisms, conducted under the leadership of A. A. Imshenetsky formed a basis for their use in the textile, tanning, film film industry, and the proteolytic enzyme emitted to them was recommended for treatment of burns and wounds. It allocated and studied a holesterinoksidaza and fibrinolysin.

A. A. Imshenetsky — one of founders of space microbiology and an exobiology. He studied action of a high vacuum, radiation and low temperatures on terrestrial microorganisms, life of microbes in extreme conditions of space environment.

A. A. Imshenetsky is the chairman of Scientific council of Academy of Sciences of the USSR on problems of physiology and biochemistry of microorganisms, one of organizers mikrobiol, the industries in the country, the first president Vsesoyuznogo microbiological about-va, the editor-in-chief of the Mikrobiologiya magazine. It is awarded by the Orders of Lenin (two), Labour Red Banners (two) and medals.

Works: Structure of bacteria, M. — L., 1940; Microbiological processes at high temperatures, M. — L., 1944; Microbiology of cellulose, M., 1953; Experimental variability of microorganisms, M., 1956.

Bibliography: Alexander Aleksandrovich Imshenetsky, sost. L. M. Zhukova, M., 1967; Alexander Aleksandrovich Imshenetsky (to the 70 anniversary since birth), Izv. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, it is gray. биол^, No. 1, page 154, 1975.

L. S. Chernin.