IMMUNOPREVENTION (Latin immunis free, saved from something + prevention) — a measure of fight against infectious diseases by creation of specific immunity to them. And. — the field of practical application of the doctrine, most important for health care, about immunity.
Preventive immunization (see) it is made actively — bacteritic or virus drugs from the live and killed bacteria and viruses, bacterial toxins and it is passive — serums of animals, immunizirovanny the corresponding antigens. At passive immunization active reorganization of protective mechanisms of an organism (strengthening of barrier function, change of exchange processes etc.) is also observed.
Progress And. in fight with epid, diseases are very big: in the USSR in the 30th smallpox is liquidated, incidence of poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus, a tularemia and some other infections is sharply reduced.
Especially brightly role And. it is shown by comparison of indicators of incidence of the diseases registered after implementation in the USSR of mass inoculations against them. So, from 1958 to 1972 incidence of diphtheria, whooping cough and poliomyelitis decreased respectively in 369; 23,1 and 125,3 times.
And. is the only prophylactic at mass infections with the airborne mechanism of transfer of the activator. It plays a supporting role and is used selectively at infections which mechanism of transfer of activators can be interrupted with other nonspecific means (e.g., sanitary and hygienic at intestinal infections).
Bibliography: V. D. Immunoprofilaktik's white hares in epidemiology, M., 1961; Burgasov P. N. Problems of specific prevention of infectious diseases, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 1, page 79, 1974; Specific prevention of infectious diseases, page 13, Chisinau, 1966; Sumarokov A. A. and With and lm and L. V. K N to a question of indications and criteria of planning of preventive inoculations, Zhurn, mikr., epid, and immun., No. 6, page 118, 1974, bibliogr.
H. M. Nikityuk.