IMMUNONEUROPHYSIOLOGY (Latin immunis free, saved from something + neurophysiology) — the section of physiology studying functioning of separate neural structures and activity of a brain in general by a research of localization, physical and chemical properties and a physiological role of neurospecific proteins (antigens) with use of antibodies to them.
In tasks And. studying of a community of mechanisms of activity of an immune and nervous system enters, their network and functional organization it is normal also of pathology. In immunoneurophysiology use a complex of methods of a research, including elek-trofizio logical, biochemical and immunochemical (immunosorption, radio immune and immunoenzymatic analyses, an immunoelectrophoresis, an immunohistochemistry, etc.) -
And. began to develop in the 60th 20 century when antibodies (see) to antigens were received (see) nervous tissue the changes of function of a brain observed at introduction of these antibodies were also for the first time described. Afterwards purely individual neurospecific proteins (NSB) were identified and secreted that allowed not only to investigate them physical. - chemical properties but also to establish by means of monospecific antiserums to these proteins their localization, dynamics in ontogenesis and at various fiziol. states. To a crust, to time it is allocated and immunochemical more than 20 neurospecific proteins of vidonespetsifichesky, vidosiyetsifichesky and structural and specific character (tab.) are identified. NSB are found in all operational sites of neural structures in the majority of the animals belonging to various taxonomical groups (mollusks, insects, fishes, Amphibia, reptiles, birds, mammals). High evolutionary stability of NSB indicates their communication with phylogenetic ancient properties of neurons — excitability and synoptic transfer.
Formation of a range of NSB comes to an end in the first weeks of post-natal development and correlates with formation of the neurofibrillar device, glial filaments, a myelin, synoptic structures. Reflecting a biochemical differentiation of nervous tissue, NSB are connected rather with functional, than with its morphological maturing to what accurate correlation between the period of sharp increase in maintenance of NSB and time of formation of characteristic electric activity of a brain testifies. Neurotransmitters (see Mediators) and secondary messengers — cyclic nucleotides can act as inductors of synthesis of NSB (see. Nucleic acids).
Researches in And. are based, in particular, that somatic and axonal membranes, cytoplasmatic and nuclear structures, synapses are marked by individual antigens. By means of methods I. antigenic heterogeneity of a number of formations of a brain is shown (an olfactory bulb, a kernel having a tail, a hippocampus), interaction to-rykh with the corresponding antibodies at introduction to a brain leads them to various changes of behavior. Antigenic heterogeneity is connected with various functions of individual NSB, their possible participation in integrative activity of c. N of page.
Researches showed that NSB take part in mechanisms of permeability of membranes (see Membranes biological), regulation of activity of ion channels, mobilization of neurotransmitters, sinapto-genesis, a differentiation, regeneration, the organization of interneural bonds. Increase in the NSB acid fractions in command neurons is revealed (see. A nervous cell) during the formation of conditioned reflexes (see) at vertebrate and backboneless animals. Suppression of synthesis of NSB leads to destruction of the acquired skills. Training is followed by synoptic induction of a number of all-fabric (cross) and neurospecific antigens in a brain. The first of them are connected with for -
to a pisye of information, the second — with fixing and reproduction «engram-we» (see Motivation, Memory). Influence of monoaminergichesky systems of a brain on training and memory (see) is implemented through NSB.
With the help immunoneyrofiziol. researches changes of an antigenic structure of fabrics of c are revealed. N of page at the nek-ry inborn and acquired nervous diseases. Steady changes of maintenance of NSB in a brain and cerebrospinal liquid at diseases of Down are found (see Down a disease), Vogt — Shpilmeyera (see. Amaurotic idiocy), multiple sclerosis (see), diffusion encephalomyelitis (see).
Researches of forms of pathology of a nervous system are especially important, at to-rykh NSB act as markers at nevrol. mutations and autoimmune diseases (see the Immunopathology).
Development of immunochemical methods (see Immunochemistry), in particular receiving hybridomas (see t. 20, additional materials) and monoclones, will give the chance to identify antigens — markers of separate cellular types of a nervous system, functionally various sites of a cell; to emit these antigens for studying them physical. - chemical properties to carry out the analysis of their localization and function (naira., participation
in work of ion channels, hemore-tseptivny membranes, cellular adhesion etc.). Antibodies to NSB can be used for diagnosis of tumors, damages of a glia and neurons, and also as sorbents at treatment of autoimmune pathology.
Problems I. decide in various scientific institutions of the USSR (Ying-those clinical and experimental medicine of the Siberian department of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, Institute of cytology and genetics of the Siberian department of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Institute of automatic equipment and elektrometriya of the Siberian department of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Ying-those normal physiology of P. K. Anokhin
the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, All-Union scientific center of mental health of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences and the Moscow scientific research institute of psychiatry M3 of RSFSR, Ying-those biochemistry to them. A. V. Palladina of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Rostov state un-those), and also scientific institutions of the USA, Sweden, France, Italy, Denmark.
Table CHARACTERISTIC of SOME NEUROSPECIFIC PROTEINS Bibliography: Corn-crake ev V. V. Kle
exact and molecular mechanisms of memory, M., 1977; Debts O. N., Poletayev A. B. and Sherstnevv. B. Proteinaceous specificity as basis of the molecular organization of integrative activity of a nervous system, Usp. fiziol. sciences, t. And, No. 3, page 47, 1980; Treasurers V. P. and Stark M. B. About physiological effects of brain antiserums, in the same place, t. 2, N ° 1, page 70, 1971; Kruglikov R. I. Neurochemical mechanisms of training and memory, M., 1981; JI and about r and. Metabolic and pharmacological fundamentals of neurophysiology, the lane with fr., M., 1974; Sinichkin A. A. Prealbumins of a brain, Ukra-insk. biochemical zhurn., t. 53, No. 3, page 113, 1981; Sherstnev of V. V. Mozgospetsificheskiye of a squirrel in system activity of neuron, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 2, page 47, 1982; Stark M. B. Immunoneurophysiology, L., 1978; Bock E. Nervous system specific proteins, J. Neu-rochem., v. 30, p. 7, 1978, bibliogr.; Proteins of the nervous system, ed. by D. Schneider and. lake, p. 1, N. Y., 1973.
M. B. Stark, M. V. Starostina.