IMMUNOLOGY (Latin immunis free, saved from something + grech, logos the doctrine) — the scientific discipline of a medicobiological profile, edge studies molecular, cellular and all-physiological reactions of an organism to various antigens and the specific and nonspecific phenomena arising at the same time.
The basic concepts of this science are antigens (see), antibodies (see) and immunocompetent cells (see). Besides, to the sphere of studying And. enter biol, (genetic) and fiziol, factors of an organism which considerably define emergence, development, a current and an outcome of immune responses are normal also of pathology. The great influence on immune responses is exerted by environmental factors.
The immune responses which developed as a result of long evolution have adaptive character and are directed to maintenance of constancy of internal environment of the organism broken by receipt in it alien antigens. Those are antigens of microbes, and also the most various substances of an animal and plant origin. Immune responses, as a rule, promote preservation of a look and therefore they are reasonable. However owing to these or those reasons they can be perverted and directed not only to alien antigens that is natural, but also on some own normal, not changed antigens of cells and fabrics therefore there are true autoimmune diseases (see. Immunopathology ).
Immune responses as well as all other functions of an organism, owing to their relative perfection can be the cause and others patol, states, napr, hypersensitivity to antigens (see. Allergy ), to damage cells and fabrics specific complexes antigen — an antibody (see. Antigen — an antibody reaction ), and also to cause also other disturbances, e.g. hemolitic disease of newborns (see).
And. covers a wide range of the phenomena; one of them characterize norm of response to alien antigens, others are followed patol, manifestations or even by a full perversion of immune responses.
And. — independent scientific discipline; it differs from other sciences not only in the maintenance of the problems studied by it, but also the special methods of a research. Essential feature immunol, reactions is their specificity and high sensitivity. They allow, e.g., on one drop of blood with an absolute accuracy to establish its specific accessory, to define intraspecific (isoantigenic) distinctions that is unavailable to methods of other sciences.
And. left a subsoil of science about infections and for a long time continuous with it it was connected. It developed as a part of microbiology, and immunol, researches were conducted by hl. obr. at departments of microbiology and in in-ta mikrobiol, a profile.
Later, however, immunol, researches begin to develop under the influence of other sciences, and And. becomes the independent scientific discipline connected with many medical and biol, sciences.
An essential milestone in formation And. made long-term observations of E. Jenner (1798) about a possibility of the prevention of a disease of natural smallpox by an inoculation to people of smallpox material from sick cows. However these original observations did not create still a phylaxiology. Emergence And. as sciences it is inseparably linked with a name of L. Pasteur. The classical pilot studies it showed: that the causative agents of chicken cholera, a malignant anthrax and rage weakened in various ways at introduction them in an organism cause immunity to the subsequent introduction of the corresponding highly virulent microbes. These opening of L. Pasteur also formed the basis for emergence And. as sciences.
With development of problems infectious And. opening of many factors of basic value and establishment of patterns which did not lose the value and for our time is connected.
The attention of researchers first of all was drawn to studying of the reasons causing immunity after transferring of a disease or after inoculations. Hypotheses and theories are created immunity (see).
I. I. Mechnikov (1883) created the first experimentally reasonable phagocytal theory of immunity, according to a cut phagocytes provide immunity of an organism to a microbe, and after transferring of a disease increase the activity. This theory became conventional and entered into gold fund of world science.
Along with the cellular theory of immunity the humoral direction begins to be developed, a cut assigns a leading role in protection against an infection to the liquids, juice of an organism containing the substances neutralizing microbes and their poisons. Bactericidal properties of blood serum became known thanks to Y. Fodor (1887) and J. Pattoll (1888) works and in particular after the researches of G. Bukhner (1889) who opened complement (see), and E. Beringa (1890) who received antitoxins to diphtheritic and tetanic toxins. P. Ehrlich (1891) opens the antibodies neutralizing toxins of a plant origin. Gruber and Durham (M. of Gruber, H. Durham, 1896) receive the antibodies agglutinating bacteria, R. Pfeyffer and V. I. Isaev (1894) — antibodies, the lyseing cholera vibrioes, and Krauss (R. Kraus, 1897) — pretsipitina to proteins of bacteria of typhus, cholera and plague. Zh. Borde (1895) establishes that two substances take part in reaction of a bacteriolysis: one — unstable to heating, nonspecific, present at all normal serums, another — steady against heating, specific, resulting immunizations (see). The first substance was studied by G. Bukhner earlier and called by it and Zh. Borde alexin; P. Ehrlich — a complement, and I. I. Mechnikov — cytase. The second substance discovered Zh. Borda and necessary for reaction of a bacteriolysis, also received various names: «the sensibilizing substance» (Zh. Borde), «fixer» (I. I. Mechnikov), «amboceptor» (P. Ehrlich). The concept «antigen» was entered Deychem (L. Deutsch, 1899) and since then became standard.
Throughout a long time the brisk scientific discussion between supporters of cellular and humoral immunity was conducted. The first direction was headed by I. I. Mechnikov, the theory of humoral immunity was especially fruitfully developed by P. Ehrlich.
At first it seemed that both of these directions are in a sharp contradiction with each other. Further process of science, however, showed that between cellular and humoral factors of immunity there is close interaction. E.g., such humoral factors as opsonins, agglutinins and other antibodies, promote phagocytosis by the fact that, joining pathogenic bacteriums, make them more available for capture by phagocytes and digestion. Phagocytes participate as cells assistants in products of antibodies. Both cellular, and humoral theories of immunity correctly reflected only the separate parties of the phenomena of immunity, but not all phenomena in general, i.e. were unilateral. Now it is known that phagocytal reactions are a mighty mechanism of protection of an organism though not comprehensive. E.g., concerning viruses value of phagocytal reactions is small. The same can be told also concerning protection against toxins: humoral factors — to antitoxins possess a crucial role. However emergence of antibodies is connected with immunocompetent cells (see). In phagocytes there is a destruction of the toxins neutralized by antibodies, viruses and other complexes. So closely cellular and humoral factors of protection of an organism intertwine in the uniform mechanism. Recognition of value of these two theories was simultaneous award in 1908 t. to the founder of the cellular theory of immunity I. I. Mechnikov and founder of the humoral theory P. Ehrlich of the Nobel Prize.
Prior to the beginning of 20 century of work in the area I. hl were directed. obr. on disclosure of mechanisms of immunity (immunity). Success achieved in development of problems infectious And., made an invaluable contribution to specific diagnosis (see. Serological researches ), prevention and therapy of infectious diseases also created the necessary theoretical base for the general I. Odnako's development further researches showed, as. covers more wide range of problems which is far beyond science about immunity to infectious diseases.
A huge merit of I. I. Mechnikov in development And. consists in what it gave it obshchebiol. also showed the direction that immunol, patterns are patterns obshchebiol. also are not limited to infectious pathology. The doctrine about immunity to infectious diseases makes only part I. and far does not exhaust all rich maintenance of this science. I. I. Mechnikov did not limit phagocytal process only to fight against an infection, but saw in it and other functions, napr, release of an organism from the died own cells, participation in processes of food, atrophy, etc. I. I. Mechnikov's researches established relationship between And. and biology, physiology and pathology. Many researchers obtained the evidence, as humoral factors of immunity are directed not only to neutralization of microbes and products of their life activity, but also to all other alien antigenic substances at parenteral receipt them in an organism. P. Ehrlich (1891) receives antitoxins to poisons of plants, Zh. Borde (1898) — agglutinins and lysines to erythrocytes, F. Ya. Chistovich (1899) — pretsipitina to proteins of animal origin, I. I. Mechnikov (1900) — antibodies in relation to leukocytes. K. Landshteyner (1889), I. I. Mechnikov (1900) and E. S. reported London (1901) about receiving the antibodies paralyzing the movement of spermatozoa.
That circumstance that introduction to an organism not only pathogenic microbes, but also cells, rather indifferent for it, napr, erythrocytes, leads to antibody formation served as confirmation of views of I. I. Mechnikova on immunity as on obshchebiol. reaction inherent in an organism, but not as special function of protection against infections.
For development noninfectious And. Zh. Borde's works (1898), P. Ehrlich, Yu. Morgenrot (1899, 1900), Dungern (E. Dungern, 1899) and K. Landshteynera (1899) on receiving hetero - and isoimmune hemagglutinins and hemolysins were of great importance. These researches served as starting point for studying and normal (natural) isohemagglutinins of the person. Comparing the hemagglutinating properties of the serums taken from one persons with agglyutinabelny properties of erythrocytes of others, K. Landshteyner (1900 — 1901) established that blood of people immunological is heterogeneous also that all people on the basis of an antigenic serol. signs of their blood can be divided into three groups. These researches also laid the foundation of the new section I. — sciences about blood groups (see. Blood groups ). The main maintenance of this science is studying of isoantigens, isoantibodies and those phenomena what can arise in an organism as a result of their interaction, napr, at hemotransfusion, in the course of pregnancy etc. Knowledge accumulated in this area found broad application in medicine, biology, anthropology.
The group antigenic differentiation of a human body as it was established by I. L. Krichevsky with employees (1927), is not limited only to uniform elements of blood, and extends as well to all other cells of fabrics and bodies. Therefore at selection of bodies, napr, kidneys, for change, consider first of all compatibility of the donor and recipient on blood groups of the AB0 system, and then there is a selection for graft-specific antigens of the HLA system.
New and major section I. allergology (see) begins to form almost along with iso-immunology — science about blood groups. Studying reaction of an organism to repeated administration of antigen, Sh. Richet and P. Portier in 1902 described a phenomenon of an anaphylaxis, and To. The tuberculine test (1906) was observed by the similar phenomenon called by it an allergy and in clinic of infectious diseases. The hypersensitivity which is followed patol. the phenomena on repeated receipt in an organism of antigen (allergen), education in an organism of a new class of immunoglobulins — IgE, and also IgG and features of interaction of both classes of globulins with cells distinguish phenomena of an allergy from the phenomena of immunity.
Antibodies to allergen are nonspecific fixed by Fc-fragments of their molecules on a surface of basophiles, mast and other cells. In the subsequent phase specific interaction of antigenic determinants of allergen with active centers of the antibodies fixed by cells takes place as leads to release by cells of kinin and other biologically active agents and to development of allergic reaction. Allergies are the cornerstone the same molecular, cellular and obshchefiziol. reactions what carry out specific and nonspecific protection of an organism from getting into it from the outside of alien antigens of the infectious and noninfectious nature. The allergy, as well as immunity, decides by interaction of allergen (antigen) on cellular and humoral factors of an organism. The community of the factors and mechanisms participating both in an allergy, and in immunity testifies to a uniform immunobiol. to the nature of these phenomena.
Use of methods of the genetic analysis in immunol, researches was very fruitful and led to formation of the new section I. — immunogenetics (see). Dungern and L. Girshfeld (1910), Bernstein (F. Bernstein, 1924), Furukhata (T. Furuhata, 1927) applied a method of immunogenotypic analysis to studying of group antigens and antibodies of the AB0 system of the person. Further the method of immunogenotypic analysis was successfully used for identification and studying and all other known systems of an isoantigenic differentiation of the person and animals in process onto-and phylogenesis (see. Immunology of an embryogenesis ). The immunogenetics studying the nature and properties of antigens and antibodies, genetic regulation of their biosynthesis and also genetically caused reactions of an organism to various antigens is normal also of pathology, became an integral part I. Genetika made the invaluable contribution to I. Odnako and the geneticist had an opportunity to include in the sphere of the researches markers, specific, stable and rather easily available to the objective analysis, what group antigens are, e.g.
Big development was gained by clinical immunology, edges are covered by very wide range of problems. In addition to an allergy, carry autoimmune diseases, such as the acquired hemolitic anemia, a paroxysmal cold Haemoglobinuria, Hashimoto's disease here, etc. The diseases of blood connected with immunol mechanisms, allocate in the special section I. — immunohematology (see). To the section a wedge. And. carry as well the diseases caused by the damaging action of cell-bound immune complexes antigen — an antibody — a complement (see. Immunomorphology ), and also hemolitic jaundice of newborns.
Successfully the new section I develops. — immunology of malignant tumors (see. atrepsy ). In cells and fabrics of tumors of a virus origin, in the tumors caused by carcinogens, and so-called spontaneous tumors antigens, specific to these tumors, are found. Immunochemical methods for diagnosis of primary cancer of liver, a teratoma of ovaries and a small egg by identification in blood of patients of embryonal alpha-fetoprotein, and also by definition of kantseroembrionalny antigen in blood serum of patients with cancer of a stomach and intestines are used. Cellular and humoral factors and mechanisms of atrepsy are studied; methods of prevention and therapy of malignant new growths are found immunol. Immunol, methods widely use also for a solution of the problem of an etiology of cancer of the person.
Important section theoretical and wedge. And. studying of transplant immunity and unresponsiveness is (see. Immunity transplant , unresponsiveness ), i.e. two possible reactions of an organism to the same antigen. Proved theoretically [F. Burnett and F. Fenner, 1949], and then and experimentally [Billingkhem, Brent (R. Billingham, L. Brent) and P. Medavar; 1953, M. Gashek, 1953], the problem immunol, exerted tolerance huge impact on development of the general and a wedge. I. Vozmozhnost of control of an immune response of the recipient on a transplant, use of the most effective ways preventing its rejection — practical results of these researches. Paramount value in this respect has selection of compatible couples of donors and recipients for system of HLA and AB0 antigens.
Wedge. And. studies also various forms both inborn, and acquired immunological insufficiency (see) also conducts research of ways of compensation of these defects.
Big contribution to development theoretical And. the radiation immunology which allowed to find out participation and interaction of various immunocompetent cells and systems of an organism in formation of specific immunity was (see. Immunology radiation ).
All sections and the directions I described above., despite the seeming their features and difference, have the general basis — they are inseparably linked with a concept of antigens, immunocompetent cells and antibodies.
The major section I. is immunochemistry (see), studying chemical structures of antigens and antibodies, molecular mechanisms of reaction between them, effect of antigens and antibodies on biol, activity of cells and fabrics. Based on classical researches of P. Ehrlich, immunochemistry thanks to K. Landshteyner's works, Marraka (J. M of arrack), W. Morgan, Kabat (E. Rabat), R. Porter, etc. submitted important data on chemistry of environmental and artificial antigens, structure of their determinants, the immunoglobin nature of antibodies, details of their structure and interaction with antigens.
Studying of molecular bases of an immunogenesis, structure of receptors of immunocompetent cells, physical. - chemical mechanisms of their interaction, processes of biosynthesis of immunoglobulins and their structure entered And. in a bed of molecular biology.
The idea stated for the first time by I. I. Mechnikov about paramount value of cells in formation of immunity gained development. The morphology and functions of a cell and bodies in the course of an immune response, localization of antigens in fabrics, an origin and development of the cells producing antibodies, a role of a thymus gland and other lymphoid bodies in an immunogenesis are studied. The evidence in favor of the fact that the immune response depends on interaction of cells of T, In and macrophages is produced. It is shown that the protein of the immunoglobin nature produced by T lymphocytes is a mediator of interaction of these cells with macrophages and V-lymphocytes. The immunoglobulin produced by T-cells depending on various conditions can or stimulate B-cells for antibody formation, or, on the contrary, block their education and cause a state immunol, tolerances. Assume that in a thymus gland three types of T-cells are produced: the assistants, killers having cytotoxic properties and the suppressors inducing development of tolerance (see. Immunocompetent cells ).
Communication between genes of an immunoreactivity, specificity of recognition of antigens, and also intensity of an immune response is shown.
Since 50th 20 century cellular selection theories of antibody formation [N. J erne, began to be developed 1955; F. Vernet, 1959, etc.]. More and more facts testimonial of influence and obshchefiziol collect. mechanisms on immune process. It is established (P.F. Zdrodovsky, 1963) that two take part in immune responses of an organism antagonistic acting hormone: cortisol (hydrocortisone) and somatotropic hormone. Fever also leads to acceleration of processes of exchange and strengthening of immune responses, promoting destruction of alien substances and release of an organism from them. It demonstrates that specific and nonspecific molecular, cellular and obshchefiziol. factors and mechanisms of immunity function as the uniform process proceeding at various levels of the organization.
Established And. the facts and the developed methods found broad application in medicine. It is difficult to find medical discipline where immunol, methods thanks to their high specificity and sensitivity were not applied: surgeons and therapists, obstetricians-gynecologists and hematologists, infectiologists and epidemiologists and other specialists are interested in them.
Value I is big. for biology, genetics and embryology. Group antigens of blood are the ideal genetic markers used by genetics of the person, anthropology and forensic medicine. Biochemists successfully use immunol, methods for studying of synthesis, assembly and secretion of many and chained proteins etc.
In development both infectious, and noninfectious And. the significant contribution was made by domestic scientists I. I. Mechnikov, N. F. Gamaley, F. Ya. Chistovich, G. N. Gabrichevsky, L. A. Tarasevich, I. G. Savchenko, V. A. Barykin, S. V. Korshun, I. L. Krichevsky, L. A. Zilber, P. F. Zdrodovsky, etc.
Scientific research in the area I. are conducted in many laboratories and departments of in-t of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences and various in-t of M3 of the USSR. At All-Union about-ve microbiologists and epidemiologists the section of the general and applied is created And. At all-Union congresses of microbiologists and epidemiologists the section I functions. In many countries of the world are organized national about-va immunologists. In 1969 the International association immunol, about - was created century. Each three years are convoked the international congresses of immunologists: the first congress took place in 1971 in the USA, the second in 1974 in Great Britain, the third in Australia in 1977. The regional congresses of immunologists, the international symposiums are convoked.
Teaching And. in medical in-ta and technical schools the hl is conducted. obr. within programs in microbiology.
Questions I. are widely covered in periodic literature on medicine, biology, biochemistry, and also in special magazines on immunology and an allergy.
Bibliography: Ado A. D. General allergology, M., 1970, bibliogr.; Alexander Dzh. At. and Goode of R. A. Immunologiya for surgeons, the lane with English, M., 1974; Burnett F. M. Cellular immunology, the lane with English, M., 1971, bibliogr.; Boyd U. Fundamentals of immunology, the lane with English, M., 1969; Zdrodovsky Item F. Problems of an infection, immunity and allergy, M., 1969, bibliogr.; Zilber L. A. Fundamentals of immunology, M., 1958; Zotikov E. A. Isoserology of homotransplantation, M., 1969, bibliogr.; P. N jambs. Isoantigens and isoantibodies of the person it is normal also of pathology, M., 197 4; Petrov R. V. Immunology and immunogenetics, M., 1976; Tumanov A. K. and Tom ying V. V. l. Hereditary polymorphism of isoantigens and enzymes of blood is normal also of pathology of the person, M., 1969, bibliogr.; Efroimson V. P. Immunogenetics, M., 1971; Comparative immunology, ed. by J. J. Marchalonis, Oxford, 1976, bibliogr.; Fudenberg H. H. a. o. Basic and clinical immunology, Los Altos, 1977.
Periodicals — The bulletin of experimental biology and medicine, M., since 1936; The Magazine of hygiene, epidemiology, microbiology (ChSSR), Prague, since 1957; The Magazine of microbiology, epidemiology and immunology, M., since 1935 (1924 — 1929 — the Magazine of microbiology, pathology and infectious diseases, 1930 — 1934 — the Magazine of microbiology and immunology); The Medical abstract magazine, Section XXI — Medical genetics, the General and applied immunology, Organ and tissue transplantation, M., since 1956; Acta Microbioiogica, Yirologica et Immunologica, Sophia, since 1975; Annales d’lmmunologie, P., since 1973 (1887 — 1973 — Annales de l’lnstitut Pasteur); Cellular Immunology, N. Y. — L., since 1970; Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Oxford, since 1966; European Journal of Immunology, N. Y., since 1970; Immunochemistry, N. Y., since 1964; Immunology, Oxford, since 1958; International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology, Basel, since 1950; Journal of Immunology, Baltimore, since 1916.