From Big Medical Encyclopedia

IMMUNIZATION (Latin immunis free, saved from something) — specific prevention of infectious diseases among people and animals.


And. a long time it was applied only to prevention of smallpox. After opening by E. Jenner in 1796 of safety properties of a vaccinia smallpox vaccination (see) was widely adopted in many countries. According to M. A. Morozov and V. S Solovyov (1948), the quantity imparted in England by 1800 exceeded 10 000 persons. In France in 1801 inoculations were applied in 105 cities. Same year inoculations began in Moscow, and by 1814 in Russia was imparted, according to official figures, 1 899 260 persons. In Northern Italy in 8 years (since 1801) it was done to 1,5 million vaccination. Smallpox vaccination was followed by falloff of incidence and smallpox mortality. However overseeing by incidence of vaccinated testified to the limited duration of inoculative immunity and need of repetition of an inoculation in 5 — 10 years. For the first time revaccination (repeated, remote And.) it was carried out in Germany in 1831.

Further development And. determined L. Pasteur's assumption of loss by causative agents of infectious diseases, under certain conditions, disease-producing properties and ability at introduction them in an organism to create immunity to infection under natural conditions. The inoculation of sheep in 1881 in broad experience by a strain of the anthracic activator with the weakened virulence (an attenuirovanny strain) yielded indisputable results. As the pasterovsky vaccine was monopolized by «Society of pasterovsky vaccines» and the method of its production was secret, the anthracic live vaccine in Russia was independently developed by L. S. Tsenkovsky. It was applied till 1942. The anthracic vaccine STI which replaced it was used in epizootol in the beginning. to practice, and then and for And. people. In 1885 L. Pasteur for the first time saved life of the boy bitten by a mad dog, inoculations of a live vaccine. Antirabic vaccinations (ohm.) soon were generally recognized also a wide spread occurance. Idea And. live vaccines were fruitful. They are applied for the purpose of prevention of smallpox, tuberculosis, flu, measles, plague, a tularemia, yellow fever, a brucellosis, poliomyelitis and some other infectious diseases.

L. Pasteur's opinion on a possibility of creation immunity (see) only by means of live activators with the changed properties slowed down development a little vaccines (see) from the killed microbes. Such vaccines were used by V. A. Havkin in 1892 for And. against cholera and in 1896 — against plague. In 1896 Pfeyffer and V. Noll in Germany, A. Wright and D.Semple in England carried out typhoid inoculations of limited number of people. In Russia carried out them in 1898. K. High-HIV. Inoculations were widely adopted during World War I (1914 — 1918). They were followed by decrease in incidence of a typhoid in armies of the warring states, despite deterioration a dignity. conditions. And. by inactivated vaccines it was carried out also against dysentery, poliomyelitis, a typhus, a brucellosis, a tularemia, flu and some other infectious diseases. Because of insufficient efficiency many inactivated vaccines went out of use. From 30th 20 century are tested And. the chemical vaccines containing the antigenic complexes taken from the corresponding microbes.

Opportunities for And. extended after opening by G. Ramone in 1923 of a way of receiving from toxin of a diphtheritic stick anatoxin (see). And. a diphtherial anatoxin led to elimination of mass incidence of diphtheria. As a result And. tetanic anatoxin during World War II observed only isolated cases of tetanus. Efficiency is less studied And. anatoxins against anaerobic and other infections.

Value of immunization in system of preventive actions

In system preventive and protivoepid. actions role And. in relation to different groups of infectious diseases it is not identical. Without And. it is impossible to manage in fight against infectious diseases against easily implementable mechanism of transmission of infection. Among them first place is won by respiratory infections. At this group of infectious diseases And., for a nek-eye an exception, is the main measure of prevention. The smallpox vaccination which is followed by development of hyperimmunity leads to complete elimination of smallpox. Since 1958, according to the offer of the USSR, WHO successfully realizes the program of elimination of smallpox by broad coverage of the population of the countries where it widely extends, inoculations. And. led to elimination of mass incidence of diphtheria, falloff of incidence of whooping cough and measles.

And. it is not justified against infections with short-term and preferential easy a wedge, a current (e.g., against chicken pox, etc.), not leaving noticeable effects in an organism.

In connection with the indications for And. the independent place in group of respiratory infections is taken by tuberculosis. Practice of many countries, including and in what immunize practically all newborns shows that in such way it is impossible to reach elimination of tuberculosis. The main impact on incidence of tuberculosis is exerted by social factors (the material standard of living of the population, a gigabyte. skills, providing with the dwelling, etc.) and preventive actions (elimination of tuberculosis of animals and increase in efficiency of treatment of sick people). And. in this case represents an auxiliary measure.

In group of intestinal infections it is especially effective And. in prevention of poliomyelitis. Inoculations a live vaccine led practically to elimination of paralytic forms of a disease and. reporting to cells of intestines specific resistance, according to M. K. Voroshilova (1966), sharply reduced a carriage of wild poliomyelitis viruses. In prevention of a typhoid, paratyphus And yes In importance has the level of sanitary and utility improvement. Streamlining of water supply, disinfecting of sewer drains is followed by permanent decrease and the termination of incidence. At the same time need disappears in And. population. In settlements, uncomfortable in a dignity. relation, And. separate groups of the population keeps a certain value.

Conditions are similar and for And. against intestinal infections of the zoonotic nature. Improvement of herd of domestic animals, especially sheep livestock remains a radical measure of prevention of a brucellosis. In the USSR in practice of fight against a brucellosis found application And. separate (so-called threatened) groups of the population a live vaccine. In process of improvement of an epizootic situation the coverage of the population by inoculations decreases, and in many livestock farms they are not carried out any more. The basis of prevention of a hay fever is made also by improvement of herd of domestic animals, destruction of rodents, regulation of access of animals to open reservoirs and observance of measures of personal prevention. And. use in limited volume preferential for protection of the people occupied in livestock production.

In prevention of blood infections And. apply taking into account epidemic, and at diseases of the zoonotic nature — and an epizootic situation. And. against a sapropyra in troops and among separate groups of the population it was carried out to the period of the Great Patriotic War (1941 — 1945). Need for it disappeared after elimination of outbreaks of a disease in temporarily occupied territory. And. remains the main measure of prevention of a tularemia. And. against a tick-borne encephalitis, plague, the Q fever, yellow fever and other blood infections has auxiliary value and it is used for protection of narrow groups of the population.

At infections of outside covers of an opportunity And. are limited. It remains the only measure for the prevention of a course of a disease at the persons bitten by a mad animal. In process of improvement of an epizootic situation need disappears in And. against a malignant anthrax.

Epidemiological efficiency of immunization at different infectious diseases is various and depends on a number of factors. The applied vaccines on an immunogenicity are not identical. Live vaccines more immunogens, than killed. Also the immunogenicity of the vaccines used for prevention of the infections entering into one group is various. So, higher immunogennostyo the vaccine against a tularemia, than vaccines against a malignant anthrax, a brucellosis, the Q fever possesses; the inactivated vaccine against a typhoid is more effective, than an inactivated vaccine against a tick-borne encephalitis. Process of storage and transportation is reflected in an immunogenicity of vaccines. At high temperature in rather short time the percent of viable microbes in live vaccines decreases and antigenic and immunogene activity of vaccines from the killed microbes, in particular owing to a lysis of microbic bodies falls. Low temperature, especially regelation and thawing, not only reduces an immunogenicity of many drugs, but can result in their full worthlessness.

The correct dosage of drug and observance of intervals between inoculations is of great importance. The Immunizatorny effect depends on a dose of drug and increases with its increase. But expressiveness immunol. does not korrigirut reorganization with extent of increase in a dose of drug. Moreover, the vaccine in excessively high dose immunizes more weakly, than in an optimum dose. However also small doses of drug as they can cause sensitization of an organism to an infection are undesirable. The most optimum intervals at And. inactivated vaccines — 7 — 10 days. Longer interval is necessary between the first and subsequent administration of anatoxin. In the accepted schemes I. duration of an interval fluctuates of 3 weeks up to 1 month.

Tension of postvaccinal immunity depends as on an immunogenicity of drug and the scheme of its introduction, and on reactivity of an organism of vaccinated. P.F. Zdrodovsky pointed to existence of a so-called refrakternost (immunizatorny inertness) at a row imparted against diphtheria by an unambiguous dose of anatoxin for the first time (1936). According to its data, 108 children, immunizirovanny a diphtherial anatoxin, on the level of antitoxin in blood were distributed as follows: children with insufficient and sluggish products of antitoxin (0,005 — 0,03 AE) — 27,7%; children with moderate products of antitoxin (0,03 — 1 AE) — 52%; children with active products of antitoxin (1 — 4 AE) — 2:0,3%. Immunizatorny inertness is caused by specific features of an organism, degree of full value of food, influence of environmental factors, force and rhythm of immunizatorny irritation. Normalization of food, treatment of associated diseases, elimination of intoxication of various nature and the remote revaccination are necessary for overcoming it.

The result of a revaccination is universal for all types of immune responses of the person and animals. Therefore, existence preliminary immunol, reorganizations is of great importance as allows to raise a condition of immunity more quickly.

Efficiency And. depends also on coverage of the population inoculations. At infectious diseases with easily implementable mechanism of transmission of infection for achievement resistant epid, wellbeing it is necessary maximum And. the population and its revaccination in the accepted terms. The first liquidated in such way smallpox, then incidence of diphtheria within many administrative territories of the Soviet Union after immunization of St. 90% of susceptible persons and carrying out repeated revaccinations stopped. Existence of individual diseases diphtheria is connected with a carriage of toxicogenic diphtheritic sticks, loss of immunity at earlier vaccinated, defects in carrying out And. and revaccinations. Wide, almost universal, coverage of the population inoculations — one of conditions of increase in efficiency And. and at other respiratory infections.

On efficiency And. the situation influences epid. In the conditions of a wide spread occurance of an infectious disease the probability of infection, including and a high dose of the activator, is more considerable, than at low level of incidence. Diseases in such cases arise first of all among persons with insufficient immunity (inert in immunol, the relation, lost immunity).

Assessment of efficiency of immunization. In the conditions of mass And. as criterion of its efficiency serves permanent decrease in an indicator of incidence for a row of years and, especially, in comparison with the period when the corresponding vaccine was not applied. At the same time consider possible influence on decrease in incidence of other factors. Use comparison of incidence among vaccinated and not vaccinated less often. It is justified if. a part of the population is covered and it is possible to allocate for comparison of group of the population, equivalent on the main signs defining risk of infection.

Assessment of efficiency And. on rate of mortality carry out the same as on an indicator of incidence. At the same time change of rate of mortality can not match change of an indicator of incidence. It is more difficult to use an indicator of a lethality with the specified purpose. It can be considered only in comparison to an indicator of incidence and the applied methods of treatment.

Data about a wedge, disease (weight, duration of a current, complication) and its outcome (recovery, death, transition to a long form, a bacteriocarrier) it is accepted to consider on groups: vaccinated, revaktsinirovanny, defectively vaccinated, nepriv you are e.

About efficiency And. it is possible to judge also by the frequency of allocation at people of causative agents of diseases. So, And. against poliomyelitis in many areas led to circulation loss of «wild» strains of a poliomyelitis virus, the frequency of a carriage of toxicogenic strains of a diphtheritic stick decreased, the ratio in the frequency of allocation of the causative agent of whooping cough and parawhooping cough changes.

Methods of immunization

And. carry out: by introduction to an organism of antigens (live or inactivated vaccines, anatoxins), antibodies (immune serums or gamma-globulins), immune serum or gamma-globulin and after that antigen (once or repeatedly) — see the table.

Depending on administration of these or those drugs the organism gets artificial active or oroimmunity. In protivoepid. to practice widely apply And. with the help vaccines (see) and anatoxins (see), reporting to an organism acquired active immunity for long term. Duration of the created immunity allows to carry out inoculations beforehand and at a number of infections out of communication with a season, for all year.

Use of immune serums and gamma-globulin (see. Immunoglobulins ) creates short-term artificial oroimmunity. Repeated administration of heterogeneous serum and the gamma-globulin prepared from it can cause an acute anaphylaxis or a serum disease and therefore preliminary desensitization of an organism is necessary.

Simultaneous administration of antigens and serum or gamma-globulin is used in cases of explicit infection. decrease in protective forces of an organism under the influence of various factors and for the prevention of strong reaction to an inoculation. So, at an injury to the face which is not imparted against tetanus enter subcutaneously 1 ml of the adsorbed tetanic anatoxin, and then other syringe into other body part — 3000 ME antitetanic serums (previously check sensitivity to protein of horse serum) or 3 ml of donor antitetanic gamma-globulin; to children 3 years, not imparted against smallpox are more senior, before vaccination enter 3 ml of antismallpox gamma-globulin; a full course of antirabic vaccinations begin with administration of antirabic gamma-globulin in a dose 0,25 — 0,5 ml on 1 kg of weight.

Indications and terms of carrying out immunization

And. it is carried out in a planned order and on epid. to indications. The list of infectious diseases for And. in a planned order and terms of inoculations defines M3 of the USSR. At the same time consider need of observance of a 2-month interval between inoculations against separate infectious diseases.

And. on epid, to indications carry out but to the decision of the Ministries of Health of federal republics and in some cases M3 of the USSR.

Children impart in a planned order against tuberculosis on 5 — the 7th day of life of the child, against poliomyelitis from 2nd month of life, against diphtheria and whooping cough — with 5 — the 6th month, against smallpox — from 1 to 2 years and against measles from 10 months of life (tab). The revaccination of children against these infections is carried out variously. In areas where incidence of tuberculosis of children is almost liquidated and among them local forms of tuberculosis do not come to light, carry out only two revaccinations — in 7 and 15 years. Against poliomyelitis revaktsinirut children in 1, 2 and 3 years, every time it is triple at an interval of 3 months, and then once in 7 — 8 and 15 — 16 years; against diphtheria, whooping cough and tetanus — the AKDS-vaccine in 1,5 — 2 after vaccination and in 6 years once, and in some cases (tab.) — The ADS-vaccine in 11 years. The revaccination against smallpox is carried out in 8 and 16 years. The children who are going abroad are allowed to carry out smallpox inoculations aged till 1 year, but not earlier than in 3 months, with observance of the established interval between inoculations against other infectious diseases.

The indication for And. against flu, smallpox and cholera information of WHO on incidence and emergence of an infection outside the country serves (detection of a new kind of an influenza virus, identification of patients, including among persons, the countries, arrived from endemic on these infections, allocation of cholera vibrioes from sewer drains and water of open reservoirs). Need for additional smallpox vaccination does not result from successful implementation of the program of elimination of smallpox in the countries of the world more than 20 years. And. against yellow fever carry out leaving to the countries, unsuccessful on this infection.

The unplanned revaccination against diphtheria is reasonable at the accounting of results of statement of skin test (Schick's test). If the number not immune at selective inspection at school, boarding school does not exceed 5%, inoculations are not carried out. At a positive Schick's test within 6 — 15% to number inspected continuous inspection of children and a revaccination not immune is recommended. In case of identification not immune it is also more necessary to carry out a single revaccination of all children on condition of lack of medical contraindications to 20%. At the same time intensity of a Schick's test is not considered. For a revaccination the AKDS-vaccine is used. Separately from diphtheria the revaccination against whooping cough is not carried out.

And. against a typhoid apply in settlements with the increased incidence. Inoculations cover age, professional and other groups of the population at the expense of which it is supported epid, trouble. In some cases in the presence of diseases impart working at new buildings and members of their families before end a dignity. - utility improvement of settlements, the immigrants who are coming out to seasonal villages - x. works, and other contingents.

The basis for And. against a brucellosis existence of incidence of page serves - x. animals, especially small cattle. Are considered also a dignity. - a gigabyte. conditions in livestock farms and results of the analysis of incidence of the population for a row of years.

And. against a malignant anthrax carry out to the narrow groups of the population working in livestock production in points, unsuccessful on incidence. There can be a need And. the persons occupied with collecting, storage, transportation and processing of raw materials of animal origin.

Need And. against a tularemia can arise in the territory of the natural centers and in the areas which were considered safe in the epizootic relation in case of developing of an epizooty and emergence of diseases of people. In some cases carry out inoculations to the persons leaving the cities on the village - x. and other works in the area, unsuccessful on a tularemia.

A contraindication for inoculations are some diseases, a condition of reconvalescence, inborn malformations, pregnancy, etc. More detailed than a contraindication — see. Vaccination .

Planning of immunization and supply with drugs

Philosophy of planning of inoculations defines M3 of the USSR. For the next year the contingents which shall be imparted are specified, drugs are called, to-rymi it is necessary to see off I. Opredeli also terms and frequency rate of inoculations against separate infections yutsyatsya.

In the cities the plan of inoculations to children is made by inoculative offices of children's policlinics together with district doctors on the basis of an inoculative card file, edges develops of separate cards of the accounting of preventive inoculations (form No. 63). The card file is previously verified with data of the accounting of children which is carried out once a year by patronage sisters, data from a registry office on newborns and from militia about newcomers.

In rural areas to children children's policlinics, consultations and medical sites are engaged in planning of inoculations. Ila make on the basis of cards of the accounting of preventive inoculations (form No. 63) or the log-book of inoculations, and also on the basis of the given village advice about the been born and arrived children.

Essential decrease in incidence, in particular a typhoid, in recent years, and also the facts testimonial of the expressed side effect of typroid vaccines caused need of development of the system of criteria of planning of inoculations. A. A. Sumarokov and JI. V. S is scarlet .mina of m (1974) the formula is offered:

R = (100000*100)/mE

where R — coefficient of preventive immunological efficacy, to-ruyu it is supposed to use; m — the expected incidence in indicators on 100 000 population defined on the basis of long-term epidemiol, this; E — number of people who shall be imparted for reduction of diseases by 1 case. The nomogram created on the basis of a formula, according to authors, can be used for justification And. and, in particular, during the planning of immunoprevention of a typhoid on epid, to indications.

Planning of inoculations on epid, to indications, carried out regularly (a tularemia, plague, tick-borne encephalitis, etc.), is conducted as well as at other infections. In this case SES define also the territory, in limits a cut inoculations shall be carried out.

SES of the city or the district makes the consolidating plan of inoculations and after the statement by city public health department or the chief physician of the district sends it to regional, regional or republican SES which these plans sum up and submit for the approval in min. - in health care of the federal republic. The consolidating plan on the republic and the request for bacteritic drugs is sent to M3 of the USSR from where after consideration they are returned in min. - in health care of the federal republic for performance.

According to the approved plan through Soyuzkhimfarmtorg the share notice on bacteritic drugs arrives. On the basis of its regional, regional and republican SES sign agreements with in-ta for supply of bacteritic drugs. In process of delivery bacteritic drugs distribute on the institutions which are carrying out And. These institutions create also reserves of other materials necessary for And., from calculation: cotton wool of 0,5 g, alcohol of 0,5 ml, ether of 0,25 ml on one imparted, spirit solution of iodine of 10 — 15 ml on 100 imparted; 20 — 30 needles, 10 — 15 syringes on a vaccinator or one needleless Injektor.

Are engaged in the organization of inoculations of the population a dignity. - epid. M3 institutions of the USSR. And. carry out cutaneous, hypodermic, intravenous, enteral, intranasal, aerosol and combined by methods (with m. Vaccination, Injektor needleless).

The account and the reporting on inoculations

the Main registration documents for registration of inoculations to children in the cities are history of development of the child (form No. 112) and the card of the accounting of preventive inoculations (form No. 63). Marks about the done vaccination and results of skin tests (a Schick's test, Manta, etc.) in the specified forms are brought by the nurse.

Preschool institutions of an inoculation register in magazines with the indication of date, the name of drug, number of a series and dose. Magazines of times a month are given in an inoculative office for entering of data on the carried-out inoculations into cards of the accounting of inoculations and in the history of development of the child.

Schools of an inoculation consider in the card of inoculations if it is in school, or in the magazine of registration of inoculations and the medical card of the school student (form No. 26). If account is kept in the magazine, it is handed over in an inoculative office once a month.

In rural areas account of inoculations to children is kept in the card of the accounting of preventive inoculations or in the magazine according to a form No. 63.

The accounting of inoculations and in rural areas is made by the adult in the city in the magazine.

The inoculative offices and other institutions conducting inoculations upon termination of a month make the summary sheet, to-ruyu send no later than the second of the following for reporting month to city or regional SES. The called institutions make the summary report on the city or the district in general (form No. 85, 86, 87) and the fifth of the following for reporting month send to higher SES and the inspector of the Master statistical control. Reports also make regional, regional, republican SES and represent in min. - in health care of the federal republic. The main data about biol, drugs and their use in prevention of some infectious diseases are provided in the table.

Immunization of troops

Immunization of troops — a component of prevention of infectious diseases in Armed Forces. And. in troops for the first time began to carry out against intestinal infections at the end of 19 century. In the Russian army I. karbolizirovannoy by a typroid vaccine V. K. Vysokopich in 1898 for the first time carried out. Mass And. against a typhoid and cholera it began to be carried out in troops of the Russian army in 1915. In the Soviet Army in 1919 typhoid and cholera inoculations, and since 1926 inoculations were widely carried out to armies against a typhoid and a paratyphoid In steel obligatory for all staff. Since 1937 it is entered And. against dysentery (enteral) and tetanus. During the Great Patriotic War And. it was carried out by hl. obr. against intestinal infections and tetanus a polyvalent vaccine of NIISI.

And. in the Soviet Army and the Navy it is carried out in a planned order and on epid, to indications. In a planned order are carried out: vaccination and a revaccination against a typhoid, a paratyphoid And yes In, tetanus and natural smallpox. On epid, to indications of an inoculation can be carried out against any infectious diseases.

The list of planned inoculations is established by the Master military-medical control of MO USSR, and terms — orders of top military commanders of districts (groups of troops), the fleet (flotillas) on representation of chiefs of medical service. Terms and an order of carrying out inoculations on epid, to indications are established by orders of commanders of connections on representation of chiefs of medical service of connections and with the permission of chiefs of medical service of military districts, groups of troops and the fleet.

The direct organization of inoculations and control of their carrying out are assigned to chiefs of medical service of connections, parts and the ships. The order of carrying out inoculations in a part, by the ship is defined by the order of the commander of a part, the ship.

Before And. chiefs of medical service of parts and the ships will organize medical survey with thermometry of staff for identification of persons, the Crimea for health reasons inoculations are contraindicated; make lists and the schedule of carrying out inoculations on divisions; prepare rooms and necessary quantity of tools for carrying out inoculations; check the validity of inoculative drugs, and the day before And. carry out a dignity. - a gleam, work.

Mass And. check of reactogenicity of each series of the used vaccine on group in 40 — 50 persons precedes. The series of a vaccine which caused more than in 7% vaccinated strong Postvaccinal reactions is not allowed to use. Inoculations are allowed to be carried out only to the doctor or in exceptional cases the experienced paramedic under observation of the doctor.

In the personalized list vaccinated after administration of drug specify date of an inoculation, a series and a dose of the entered vaccine. Upon termination of inoculations do marks in medical books of the military personnel. The doctor who carried out And., checks the state of health vaccinated, and also results of vaccination in 24, 48 and 72 hours, considering at the same time local and general reactions.

And. against a typhoid, a paratyphoid And yes In and tetanus it is carried out sorbed typhus paratifoznostolbnyachnoy by a vaccine (TABte) in a planned order. And. the military personnel as an annual revaccination, but not earlier than in 4 — 6 months after primary by the vaccine TABte do to I. Privivk under skin once both at primary immunization, and at a revaccination is subject called up for the Soviet Military service and the Navy on recruiting stations or on arrival in troops and on the fleet, and also.

Recruits and staff of the Soviet Army and the Navy are exposed every 4 — 5 years to planned preventive smallpox inoculations (revaccination). The accounting of results of a revaccination is carried out on 2 — the 4th day after an inoculation. In case of a negative take of an inoculation repeat in 5 — 7 days. And. against smallpox on epid, to indications carry out to all staff irrespective of terms of the previous inoculation. Inoculations do by a smallpox detritis nakozhno in a dose 0,01 ml of drug usually along with TABte.

And. against tuberculosis carry out by dry vaccine BTsZh for intradermal introduction. Recruits who have no reaction to intradermal administration of standard solution of tuberculine (Mantoux reaction) are exposed to inoculations (revaccination). Vaccine enter in a dose 0,05 mg into 0,1 ml fiziol, solution of sodium chloride. Control of developing of a postvaccinal allergy is exercised by statement of Mantoux reaction in 10 — 12 months after vaccination. In the absence of reaction revaccination is carried out.

Immunization of animals

Scientific bases And. animals were put by L. Pasteur who created the first vaccines against a malignant anthrax (1881) and an ugly face of pigs (1883). In 1883 the antianthracic vaccine was received by the Russian scientist L. S. Tsenkovsky, antierysipelatous — P. F. Bohr (1896) and F. Konev (1899). Big contribution to the case I. animals were brought by the Soviet scientists S. N. Muromtsev, N. A. Mikhin, S. G. Kolesov, N. V. Likhachev, I. I. Kulesko, S. Ya. Lyubashenko and another, created vaccines against a number of diseases of domestic and trade animals. In the USSR vaccines for complex and associated are successfully developed And. animals, as well as. at protozoan diseases. At the beginning of the 70th 20 century for the first time in the world it is implemented active And. at a trichophytosis of cattle (And. X. Sarkisov with sotr.). And. animals played a big role in elimination and reduction of the epizootic centers of such dangerous diseases of animals as a malignant anthrax, plague of cattle, plague of pigs, a brucellosis, etc.

And. animals are subdivided on preventive, or planned, and on And. according to epizootic indications.

Preventive immunization is carried out taking into account trouble of economy on this or that disease to certain calendar terms against a malignant anthrax, a brucellosis large and small cattle, a foot-and-mouth disease, rage, tetanus, leptospirosis, Auyeski's disease, etc.

Immunization according to epizootic indications is carried out for elimination of the arising outbreaks of infectious diseases, and also for the prevention of their possible penetration into a certain economy from places, unsuccessful on a disease.

And. carry out only by a healthy animal; the weak and exhausted animals, animal in the last stage of pregnancy or after the delivery and with an elevated temperature are not immunized. At And. animals are considered that sharp temperature drops of the environment, change of conditions of keeping and feeding, diets, defective on protein, especially before vaccination and in the period of an adaptive phase of an immunogenesis, can oppress formation of immunity. The vaccinated animals after influence of the specified factors can remain susceptible to an infection and support the epizootic centers of infectious diseases.

The majority of vaccines enter an animal under skin or intramusculary; some apply with drinking water, intranazalno or aerogenno, and also by means of rubbing in.

Passively immunize the weakened animals, animal in the last stage of pregnancy, and also in case of need bystry creation of immunity, napr, at the developing epizooty. Immune serums apply against a malignant anthrax, rage, a foot-and-mouth disease, Auyeski's disease, a hemorrhagic septicaemia, tetanus, an ugly face of pigs, a salmonellosis and a kolibakterioz of young growth, a diplokokkovy infection, dysentery of eanlings, an infectious enterotoksemiya of sheep.

Watch certain time immunizirovanny animals, during to-rogo reaction to the administered drug usually comes to an end. At strongly expressed reaction or at a complication an animal enter specific hyperimmune serum with to lay down. purpose or medicamentous means. Use of the products received from vaccinated animals before the end of reaction to an inoculation at some infectious diseases is allowed with restrictions.

See also Vaccination , Vaccines , Postvaccinal complications , Seroimmunity .

Table. The short characteristic of biological drugs and their use for specific prevention of some infectious diseases

the Calendar of preventive inoculations

the Calendar of preventive inoculations — the document regulating indications, the sequence and terms of vaccination and a revaccination of the population; is a basis of drawing up plans of immunoprevention (see Immunization, Immunoprofilaktika).

The calendar of preventive inoculations regulates two groups of inoculations: planned, carried out irrespective of an epidemic situation, and an inoculation according to epidemic indications.

Tuberculosis inoculations (see), poliomyelitis (see), whooping cough (see), diphtherias (see), tetanus (see), measles (see) and epidemic parotitis enter into the first group (tab.) (see Parotitis epidemic). Irrespective of an epidemic situation against these diseases immunize all children in the first days or months of life. It is caused by features of epidemiology, weight a wedge, currents and an outcome of these inf. diseases at children, a high susceptibility to their activators and easily carried out airborne transfer of contagiums (see the Mechanism of transmission of infection).

Planned inoculations to all children's population of our country against measles, epidemic parotitis, diphtheria, whooping cough are carried out in connection with prevalence of these diseases, high contageousness, and also weight of a current and outcomes. Planned tuberculosis, poliomyelitis and tetanus inoculations in spite of the fact that incidence of them in the USSR is small and continues to decrease consistently, are caused by features of immunity at tuberculosis, weight of a current and heavy outcomes of poliomyelitis and tetanus. Antitubercular immunity has character unsterile when after infection resistance only to superinfection, i.e. to the causative agents of tuberculosis getting to an organism from the outside, but not to already available forms. In this regard early inoculations a newborn harmless vaccinal strain of tubercular bacteria with residual virulence (see) provide formation of the immunitas non sterilisans (see) remaining until in an organism there are live microbes of a vaccinal strain. For maintenance of an immunitas non sterilisans carry out a fivefold revaccination (see). Early terms of immunization against poliomyelitis are caused by a possibility of infection of children, and also easy portability of a poliomyelitic vaccine and a possibility of combination of these inoculations with immunization against whooping cough, diphtheria and tetanus AKDS-vak-tsinoy. Planned tetanus inoculations of children are carried out to force of high risk to catch at the frequent small wounds, scratches, grazes got by children during the games.

Terms and schemes of use of the vaccines used in the different countries for tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, measles and epidemic parotitis inoculations significantly do not differ from each other. The same calendar of preventive inoculations operating in the majority of the developed countries of the world is taken as a basis of drawing up the program of expanded immunization, according to a cut by 1990 practically of all children of the globe shall impart against the listed nurseries inf. the diseases which are one of the reasons of child mortality.

The second group of inoculations — against a typhoid (see), a brucellosis (see), Q fevers (see), a hay fever (see), a malignant anthrax (see), tularemias (see), cholera (see), plagues (see), a tick-borne encephalitis (see) and others inf. diseases — it is carried out according to epidemic indications. Certain prof. of group or all population of limited territories at high risk of infection are vaccinated (and revaktsinirutsya). Epidemic indications are: accommodation in the territory of endemic (enzootichny) on this or that infection; an epizooty among rodents (plague, a tularemia); participation in trade on a muskrat and a water rat (an opportunity to ache with a tularemia); work at the enterprises for processing of animal raw materials (danger of infection with a malignant anthrax); work on lesorazrabotka, participation in expeditions to districts, endemic on a tick-borne encephalitis; care of the cattle in districts, unsuccessful on a brucellosis, etc. Reference of the territory to endemic or enzootichny on this or that infection is established by the Ministries of Health of federal republics on representation regional (regional, regional) bodies of health care. Inoculations according to epidemic indications are planned according to the decision of the Ministries of Health of federal republics. Terms and methods of carrying out inoculations according to epidemic indications see in the listed above articles.


Bibliography: Zdrodovsky P. F. Problem of an infection, immunity and allergy, M., 1969; I. I. Swordsmen. Academic collected works, t. 8, M., 1953; Nikolsky V. V. Bases of immunity of farm animals, M., 1968, bibliogr.; New in treatment and prevention of infectious diseases of animals, M., 1972; Practical immunology, under the editorship of P. N. Burgasov and I. S. Bezdenezhnykh, M., 1969; The Reference book on use of bacteritic and virus drugs, under the editorship of S. G. Dza-gurov and F. F. Rezepov, M., 1975; With at-marokov A. A. and Salmin L. V. To a question of indications and criteria of planning of preventive inoculations, Zhurn, mikr., epid, and immun., No. 6, page 118, 1974, bibliogr.

I. S. Bezdenezhnykh; L. I. Bespalov (immunization of animals), authors of the tab., E. N. Zonova, G. Ya. Kuzminskaya. A. A. Sumarokov.