From Big Medical Encyclopedia

IMMUNE STICKING (Latin immunis free, saved from something) — the specific immunological reaction which is caused formation of a complex antigen — an antibody — a complement and its interactions with receptors of thrombocytes and erythrocytes and expressed in formation of agglutinates.

For the first time the phenomenon of sticking of thrombocytes to bacteria found K. Levaditi (1901), investigating the cholera vibrioes entered into blood of immunizirovanny rabbits and Guinea pigs. Afterwards this phenomenon was confirmed with various microbes and in vitro [Eyno (M. of Aynaud), is reproduced 1911; H. Rieckenberg, 1917; A. M. Brusin, 1925, etc.]. The phenomenon of sticking of the thrombocytes to bacteria loaded with antibodies is studied by I. L. Krichevsky and sotr in detail. (1924, 1927), the proved participation in this process of a complement and the specific antibodies called by them trombotsitobarina. In 20 — the 30th the phenomenon of sticking of thrombocytes was called H. Rieckenberg's reaction — Brusina.

By analogy with sticking of thrombocytes the phenomenon of sticking of erythrocytes of the person to bacteria in the presence of specific antibodies and a complement was described. In 1953 Nelson (D. S. Nelson) offered the term «immune sticking». Reaction of Nominative is characterized by high sensitivity and widely used for definition of in vitro of activity of various antibodies and antigens, and also a complement. Reaction of Nominative proceeds in 3 phases: formation of a specific complex antigen — an antibody, accession of a complement to a complex antigen — an antibody, interaction between a complex antigen — an antibody — a complement and indicator cells (thrombocytes, erythrocytes). At statement of reaction of Nominative all procedures (washing, preparation of a suspension of cells, cultivation of antiserums and a complement) carry out in veronalovy buffer solution (pH 7,2) containing ions of Ca and Mg. As antigen use: the killed bacteria from which after triple washing prepare by solution a suspension in concentration of 2-108 cells in 1 ml; various types of somatic zooblasts and the person in the form of cellular suspension (concentration, e.g., for lymphocytes of 5 — 6-106 cells in 1 ml, for fibroblasts of 5 - 105 cells in 1 ml) or the monolayer (isolated) fabric cultures; egg and serumal albumine, bacterial polysaccharides and others from which prepare 1% the main solution from prepare by cultivation working solutions-rogo for the subsequent. Examinees of an antiserum (hetero - and isoimmune) inactivate previously warming up within 30 min. at t ° 56 ° and exempt by adsorption from heterophyllous antibodies to erythrocytes of the person. As a complement apply usually mix from fresh serums of Guinea pigs which adsorb erythrocytes of the person and the corresponding microbes. During the definition of HLA antigens in lymphoid and other cells of the person serum of the person of the AV group can be a source of a complement. As indicator cells generally use erythrocytes of the person of group of 0 (I) Rh+ which keep in Alsever's solution to 3 weeks. After triple washing prepare by buffer solution 1,5% a suspension.

Statement of reaction

In a row test tubes like Kan bring on 0,2 ml of an ispytuyemy antiserum (in twofold cultivations), 0,5 ml of antigen and 0,2 ml of a complement (cultivation 1:10 — 1: 50) also incubate in the water bath within 30 min. at t ° 37 °. Then add 0,1 ml of 1,5% of a suspension of erythrocytes of the person and again incubate within 1 — 1,5 hour. The result of reaction is estimated microscopically by calculation of percent of the erythrocytes which joined corpuscular antigen, sensibilized antibodies and a complement and also by definition of character of a deposit of erythrocytes just as in reaction of passive hemagglutination.

Similar statement and the accounting of results of reaction is carried out during the use as antigens of a suspension of somatic cells, at the same time define also percent of cells with the stuck erythrocytes (socket). Reaction consider if not less than three erythrocytes stick. For definition of graft-specific antigens of the HLA system the microtest of Nominative is offered, at Krom all ingredients are brought at the same time; the result is estimated on rosetting (see. Immunocompetent cells ).

Reaction of Nominative is characterized by high specificity, it is applied to definition of antigenic properties of bacteria, viruses, leukocytes, cells of fabric cultures, and also activity of soluble antigens, antibodies and a complement.

Bibliography: Brusin A. Brussin of Eine neue Immunitatsreaktion bei experimentel-lem Riickfallfieber, Z. Immun. - Forsch., Bd 44, S. 328, 1925; Krichevskiy. L. and Lebedeva M. H. A research of the genetic relations among spirochetes like icterogenes (Leptospirae) by means of trombotsitobarin, Works Mikrobiol, nauch. - issled, in-that, t. 3, page 68, M., 1927; bibliogr.; Krichevsky I. L. and Cherikover R. 3. About the antibodies loading microorganisms with thrombocytes (trombotsitobarina), Zhurn, mikr., patol, and inf. diseases, t. 1, century 1-2, page 348, 1924; Aynaud M. Action des microbes sur les globulins, Page R. Soc. Biol (Paris) t. 70, p. 54, 1911; Duke H. L. a. W a 1 1 a with e J. M. Red-cell adhesion in trypanosomiasis of man and animals, Parasitology, v. 22, p. 414, 1930; L e v a d i-t i G. Sur l’etat de la cytase dans le plasma des animaux normaux et des organismes vaccines contre le vibrion of chol£rique, Ann. Inst, Pasteur, t. 15, p. 894, 1901; Nelson R.A. Immune-adherence phenomenon, immunologically specific reaction between microorganisms and erythrocytes leading to enhanced phagocytosis, Science, v. 118, p. 733, 1953; R i e with k e n-b e r g H. Eine neue Immunitatsreaktion bei experimenteller Trynanosomen-Infektion, die Blutplattchenprobe, Z. Immun. - Forsch., Bd 26, S. 53, 1917.

M. M. Kapichnikov.