From Big Medical Encyclopedia

IDENTIFICATION OF THE PERSONALITY (late lat. to identify identificare; synonym identification) — definition by special methods of identity of the subject to the particular person on the distinguishing characters and features characterizing it. And. l. it is used in investigative and jurisprudence for identification and exposure of the criminal, search of the persons suspected of commission of crime, defendants, convicts and missing persons and also for identification of detainees by judicial bodies, etc. Besides, And. l. it is necessary at detection of corpses of unknown persons, parts of corpses at their traumatic or criminal partition, bones and bone remains.

For And. l. anthropometrical researches are used (see. Anthropometry ), fragments of system of Bertilyon, dactyloscopy, a palmatoskopiya, a poroskopiya, studying and fixing of traces of legs of the person («a path of traces» during the walking or run, prints of soles), handwriting (see. Pocherkovedeniye ), «identikit» is formed, occupational diseases and the changes caused by them come to light and registered, features of the dentoalveolar device are considered, examination of blood, saliva, sperm, a hair, nails and other objects biol, origins is made (see. Material evidences ). Visual, laboratory, tool, technical and other methods choose and combine in relation to an object, the purposes and specific objectives of an identification, for production to-rogo as specialists criminalists and court are attracted, as a rule. - medical experts. In competence court. - medical experts for the purposes I. l. the research of corpses, parts of corpses, bones and bone remains, blood and sperm or their traces, hair, nails, and also other parts and allocations of a human body enters.

At And. l. as comparative material x-ray films of a skull and its cavities, teeth, etc. can serve. The changes revealed in them compare with the signs which are available on x-ray films of the same parts of the unknown made in the course of examination. Comparative material can contain also in other documents (individual medical books, case histories and out-patient cards, pictures, etc.).

In the second half of 19 century fr. criminalist Bertilyon (And. Bertillon) was offered the method of an identification including anthropometrical data, a description and special signs (Bertilyon's system); fragments of a method are applied at And. l. The signaletichesky (identification) photo — zone pictures full face and in the right profile, a description — the description of the steadiest external signs on specially developed system is created: static (e.g., form, size and features of the head, forehead, nose, auricle, lips etc.) and dynamic (a bearing, gait, gesticulation, a mimicry, etc.), special signs are described.

For And. l. congenital anomalies and malformations, napr, birthmarks, defects of formation of a nose, lips, an auricle, a deviation in a form and an arrangement of teeth, protrusion or retraction of an eyeglobe, opacification of a cornea, a rachiocampsis or extremities, malformations of extremities, including their total absence, shortening of a hand or leg owing to amputation, deformation of joints, changes owing to surgery, patol can act as special signs. pigmentation or a depigmentation, tumoral growths, hems, a tattoo (various images on skin created by artificial administration of colorants in a derma). Lameness, tic, stutter, burr, accent, discrepancy of a timbre of a voice to a floor are among functional special signs or I will increase etc. «Identikit» is formed on the basis of testimonies of the victims or witnesses.

Vida of manual patterns: 1 — arc; 2 — loopback; 3 — zavitkovy.

At And. l. the dactyloscopy — establishment of the main drawing and features of papillary lines on the palmar surface of nail phalanxes of fingers of hands, individual and unchangeable throughout all human life is of great importance. Papillary patterns are subdivided into arc, loopback and zavitkovy (fig.); in each of these types there are versions according to features of a structure. At dactyloscopic registration these patterns are designated by alphabetic or digital formulas. Are based on specific features also a palmatoskopiya — And. l. on papillary patterns of a bottom surface of feet and a poroskopiya — identification on an arrangement and features of a structure of openings of output channels of sweat glands (time) of fingers of hands.

During the studying of traces of legs of the person the set of consistently imprinted traces reflecting specific features of walking of the person and reproducing a dynamic stereotype of his gait is considered; at the same time in a so-called path of traces establish the steadiest elements characteristic of gait: length, width and corner of a step. The identification of the personality happens possible on a trace of footwear — to a print of a sole (its sizes, a form, the drawing, etc.).

At a research of corpses of unknown persons for And. l. perform measurement of growth, a circle of the head and its diameters, circles of a neck, a breast and a stomach, length a foot, use descriptive elements of a description and the characteristic of specific features — properties of foreteeth (a form, absence, caries, prosthetics), birthmarks and others of pigmentation, depigmentation, ugliness, hems, tattoos, professional or patol, features etc. If the corpse of the unknown person underwent the considerable disfiguring putrefactive changes, then some restoration actions — reconstruction of a corpse are necessary for photography or an identification (removal of dirty-green coloring of the integuments which accumulated under them putrefactive gases, recovery of a form and color of eyes, lips — artificial recovery of an intravital type gnilostno of the changed or disfigured corpse).

At court. - honey. And. l., made by a research of bones or bone remains, their accessory to a skeleton of the person is established a prelude of all. Are for this purpose used given to a comparative anatomy and histology, a precipitation test (taking into account those changes, the Crimea could undergo protein of a bone tissue), issue spectral analysis (see). Depending on character of the studied object (group of bones, a separate bone or its fragments) after establishment of its accessory to a skeleton of the person define a sex, age (see. Age, bone ) and growth of the subject with use anthropometrical, X-ray anatomic, anatomic and gistol, methods. For And. l. on bones or their remains existence inborn or patol, features is of also great importance. At detection of the whole skull of the person use methods of photo combination and facial reconstruction on a skull. For this purpose the intravital photo of the wanted subject is combined with the photo of a skeletirovanny skull with an indispensable condition of production of pictures in an identical foreshortening and scales. At discrepancy of separate identification topografoanatomichesky parts and details on the combined pictures the identity is excluded. At full coincidence an opportunity to draw a conclusion on accessory of a skull and the intravital photo to the same subject is created. Reconstruction a linden on a skull — reproduction of the person in the sculptural image but to M. M. Gerasimov's method based on patterns of a ratio of soft tissues of the person and skull.

Definition of time which expired from the moment of approach of death before detection of bones or bone remains matters at And. l. The issue of such term is resolved taking into account nature of the soil, in a cut they were, expressivenesses and extents of change of soft tissues if they remained on bones, features of the fauna found on them. Examination of prescription of stay of bones in the soil demands use of the complex of researches including visual, morfol., physical., chemical and entomol. methods. Determination of exact term is most often complicated, however even approximate term can serve the purposes I. l., especially in combination with other proofs (the statement with date of disappearance of the wanted subject, simultaneous detection of parts of clothes, footwear and different personal belongings — rings, earrings, mouthpieces, lighters, etc.). Specific contents has And. l. at court. - medical examination of parts of corpses. At court. - medical examination of the dismembered corpse (the criminal partition, a cut is made for concealment of a crime against life) complexes of visual and laboratory examinations are applied to establishment of accessory of parts to one corpse, the sex, age, growth and a constitution is defined, the methods practiced at a research of a corpse of the unknown person are used, differentiation of an intravital and posthumous origin of damages with the proof of a cause of death is made, the limitation periods of a partition and signs characterizing a subject (tool), the Crimea come to light it was made. Need in And. l. arises p at a traumatic partition of corpses, a cut it is observed, e.g., at transport (aviation and rail) accidents and is followed by existence of many parts of corpses. The identification at these types of an injury more often all is limited to establishment of accessory of parts to a specific corpse and identification of the signs identifying the identity of the dead.

Evidentiary importance court. - medical researches at And. l. considerably depends on correctness of the choice of methods, their consecutive and rational combination. It must be kept in mind that at an identification specific details of the identified object which can be decisive especially are important.

Bibliography: Koldin V. Ya. Identification and its role in establishment of the truth on criminal cases, M., 1969; L about to and r E. The guide to criminalistics, the lane with it., M., 1941; Forensic medicine, under the editorship of A. R. Denkovsky and A. A. Ma-tysheva, L., 1976, bibliogr.

V. M. Smolyaninov.