ICELAND, the Republic Iceland — the state located on the island of a volcanic origin of the same name in a northern part of the Atlantic Ocean. The area is 103 thousand km 2 . Population of 220 thousand people (1976). The capital — Reykjavík (84,4 thousand zhit., 1975).
Administrative division — 16 sisla (districts) which are divided into communities. Ofits. Icelandic. Relief mountainous. The climate is subarctic, sea.
The head of state — the president. The legislature belongs jointly to an alting (two-chamber parliament) and to the president, executive power — to the president who appoints the government.
And. — agrarian capitalist country. Primary branches — fishery and agriculture, a cut has small-scale character. In fishery and the fish processing industry it is engaged apprx. 45% of the population.
St. 99% of the population Icelanders. The natural movement of the population in 1975 (for 1000 zhit.): birth rate 20,6; mortality 6,9; natural increase 13,7 °/09; child mortality 11,1 on 1000 live-born. Average life expectancy of men 72,2 years, women — 77,2 (according to WHO data, 1972).
In structure of causes of death in 1972 first place was won by an ischemic disease (185,4 on 100 thousand population), the second — malignant new growths (162,4), the third — vascular damages of a brain (93,2), and also accidents, pneumonia, damages to childbirth, etc.
From infectious diseases flu, whooping cough, scarlet fever, measles, infectious hepatitis (1972) most often are registered.
Management of health care is performed by Min-in of health care and social security. The country is divided into the 5th dignity. areas which are divided into a dignity. districts. In each district there is a center of health for rendering to lay down. - professional, the help. In the centers general practitioners, midwifes, nurses, dentists, physiotherapists, workers knowing social problems and other personnel work.
In 1970 in And. 48 BCs in which 2923 beds are developed functioned (14,6 beds for 1000 of the population). According to the law on reorganization of health service adopted in 1973, responsibility for work of BC is conferred on local authorities.
V I. there is a system of obligatory social insurance, edges are covered by all population and covers the most part of expenses on rendering medical aid to the population.
Extra hospital service would be carried out in 2 polyclinic departments at, 2 clinics and 2 centers of health (1972). 7 centers of health carry out overseeing by pregnant women and children. In 1970 they accepted 718 pregnant women and 1985 children. Practically all childbirth is accepted by the doctor or the midwife. 1 time in 2 years medical examinations of school students are carried out. Vaccination against smallpox, diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus and poliomyelitis is obligatory. In 1971 in And. there were 321 doctors (1 doctor on 654 zhit.), 106 dentists, 96 druggists, 141 midwifes, 847 nurses and assistants to nurses, 31 physiotherapists, 79 laboratory assistants.
Training of doctors is carried out on medical f-those un-that in Reykjavík; dentists, druggists, nurses, midwifes, laboratory assistants — at the relevant schools.
Specialization of doctors is made in the Scandinavian countries, Great Britain and the USA.
Bibliography: Year-book of world sanitary statistics, 1972 — t. 1, page 38, 1971 — t. 3, page 139, Geneva, WHO, 1976; The Fifth review of a condition of health care in the world (1969 — 1972), page 237, Geneva, WHO, 1977; World Health Statistics Report, v. 29, No. 1, 2, 4, 1976.
V. B. Tsybulsky.