From Big Medical Encyclopedia

IBN-XING, Abu Ali Hussein ibn Abdallakh [latinizirovanny Avicenna (Avicenna), 980 — 1037] — the doctor, the philosopher, the scientist and the poet.


Sogdiyets was born in the settlement of Afshana (near Bukhara), by origin. The childhood and youth carried out philosophy, mathematics, medicine in Bukhara where under the leadership of experienced teachers studied divinity, and began scientific and profession of a physician. The glory about it as about the doctor quickly grew, and he was invited to the sick emir Noah to ibn-Mansour, for successful treatment to-rogo Ibn-Xing it was authorized to use the richest book-depository of the emir. Here he went in for poetry, philosophy, mathematics, geology, astronomy, natural sciences and especially medicine. In 1002 Ibn-Xing moved to the capital of Khwarezm — Gurgendzh (nowadays Urgench) where within 5 years of veins he at court of the shah Mamuna and went in for sciences; since 1007 he lived in Khurasan; since 1012 — in Isfahan and Hamadan where was a court doctor and the vizier (minister) at the governor of Hamadan. Ibn-Xing in Hamadan died and is buried. On its grave the mausoleum was erected, instead of to-rogo in 1954 the new monumental mausoleum is built, and in the city the monument is built. During construction of the new mausoleum the tomb of Ibn-Sina and academician was opened. The Iranian academy of Sciences Sayeeda Nefesi managed to photograph in various foreshortenings Ibn-Sina's skull. Century of H. Ternovsky described morfol, features of a structure of a skull of Ibn-Sina, and M. M. Gerasimov made graphic reconstruction of a portrait of Ibn-Sina (see a portrait). It is the only portrait of Ibn-Sina based on his original substrate unlike all other numerous doubtful iconography.

The main medical work of Ibn-Sina — Canon of medical science (see), over the Crimea it worked many years. «Canon» is the fundamental encyclopedia of medical knowledge of an era of East Middle Ages. In this work the theory of medicine (anatomy, physiology, the general etiology, a symptomatology), the doctrine about medicinal substances, private pathology and therapy are stated. In it the thought of protection of an organism from diseases, about a role physical is consistently carried out. exercises in strengthening of health; questions of age hygiene and a dietetics, hygiene of the dwelling and food, in particular about drinking water are stated; operation of a lithotomy, treatment of wounds and injuries, bloodletting are described (indications and contraindications, the choice of veins). Recommended to process Ibn-Xing's wounds wine. It added pharmaceuticals known to the Greek, Indian and other doctors of antiquity new, in particular mineral, applied mercury (by vtiraniye) to treatment of syphilis.

At sick Ibn-Xing' inspection recommended to listen to a breast an ear, to tap a stomach, distinguished a sound «burdyuchny» (stupid) and «drum» (tympanic), almost per thousand years having anticipated methods of auscultation of R. Laennek and L. Auenbrugger's percussion.

The first hand-written transfer of «Canon» into Latin is dated 12 century; its first printing edition appeared in 1473 in Milan. In total «Canon» was republished 35 times and in all high fur boots of Europe to the second half of 17 century inclusive was on an equal basis with K. Galen's works by the main management, on Krom teaching medicine was conducted.

Philosophical views of Ibn-Sina are contradictory. In them materialistic judgments and teologo-idealistic provisions were combined: he paid a tribute to mysticism, allowed spells and learned that the world is material and eternal, in it laws of immutable need work; claimed that there is no abstract corporal form out of matter, and the nature develops by the principle of the self-movement in time and space; considered sincere diseases as result of various frustration in a body of the patient, along with impact of soul on a body recognized influence of a body on soul, considered that the sincere forces managing a body are localized in a brain and depend on it; the brain divided into shares and connected them with certain functions in a body.

Ibn-Sina's philosophy played a big role in fight against religious and mystical philosophy of Islam, gained recognition thanks to numerous lat. also exerted transfers of works of Ibn-Sina a great influence on further development of science both in the east, and in the West.

Ibn-Xing was a talented popular writer of science, the master of a poetic syllable. We were reached by some of its quatrains (ruba).

Works: Abu Ali Ibn Cynna's biography which is written down by Abu-Ubayd Al-Dshuzdzhani, Literat. Tajikistan, No. 5, page 131,1953; Danish-name (Book of knowledge), Stalinabad, 1957; The Canon of medical science, the lane with arabsk., t. 1 — 6, Tashkent, 1954 — 1960.

Bibliography: Materials of the scientific session of AN UZSSR devoted to 1000-year anniversary of Ibn Cynna, Tashkent, 1953; Petrov of B. D. Ibn Xing, Tashkent, 1976; Ibn Cynna's Portrait, Tashkent, 1956; P e-shetnikov S. A. Poisons and antidotes in «A canon of medical science» of Ibn Cynna, Pharm, and toksikol., t. 25, No. 4, page 499, 1962; Ternovsky V. N. Ibn Xing (Avicenna), M., 1969.

V. N. Ternovsky.