From Big Medical Encyclopedia

IBN-ROSHD, Ibn-Rushd Abul-Waleed Muhammad ibn-Ahmed [latinizirovanny Averroes (Averroes), 1126 — 1198] — the Arab philosopher and the doctor, the astronomer, the statesman of the Cordoba caliphate; was the governor of Andalusia, the judge, the court doctor.

Ibn-Roshd is the founder of the direction in medieval philosophy, known under the name «averroizm».

The main philosophical works of Ibn-Roshd submit comments to Aristotle's works and develop the materialistic parties of his doctrine. Ibn-Roshd denied immortality of soul, developed the ideas of a nesotvorennost of the world a deity and eternity of the movement as main line of everything existing; asserted the rights of reason; opposed to belief knowledge, to divinity — philosophy. The theory about «the dual truth», sources a cut lie in division of religion by Ibn-Roshd on so-called rational (available to formed) and figurative and allegorical (available to all), expressed the aspiration to exempt scientific and philosophical thought from fetters of divinity. Averroizm was the progressive direction in medieval philosophy, contradicted canons of Islam and especially Catholicism and therefore it was pursued by church. This doctrine was condemned by papal bulls, the resolution of a church cathedral (1513).

The heretics-averroisty running from religious persecutions from Iberian Peninsula among whom there were many doctors were founders of the advanced scientific centers in Northern Italy (in particular, in Padua) and the Netherlands (Holland).

In the field of medicine Ibn-Roshd developed Ibn-Sina's views, and also scientists east (Baghdad) and western (Cordoba) caliphates. He was the author of comments to Ibn-Sina's «Canon», and also the encyclopedic management in 7 parts «Kitab of al-kolliyat» («The book of the general principles of medicine»), translated into Latin in Padua in 1255 under the name «Colliget» («Collection»). Work contains numerous a wedge, observations of Ibn-Roshd and his predecessors, the description of a course of widespread diseases, especially infectious. Ibn-Roshd gave the observation in it that had smallpox does not get sick with it repeatedly. He studied also a structure of an eye, described a retina.

Works: The chosen works of thinkers of the countries of the Middle East 9 — 14 centuries, under the editorship of G. N. Grigoryan, page 397, M., 1961.

Bibliography: History of philosophy, under the editorship of M. A. Dynnik, etc., t. 1, page 222, M., 1957; Kovner S. G. History of medieval medicine, century 1, Kiev, 1893; L of e y. Sketches of history of medieval materialism, the lane with it., page 143, M., 1962; Frakastoro D. About a contagion, contagious diseases and treatment, the lane from Latinas., page 17, 185, M., 1954.

P.E. Zabludowsky.