HYPOKINESIA (hypokinesia; grech, hypo-+ kinesis the movement) — the term used in two values: 1) the symptom of motive frustration which is expressed in decrease in a physical activity and speed of the movement at some defeats of extrapyramidal system; 2) the restriction of mobility caused by a way of life, features of the prof. of activity, a bed rest in the period of a disease, mechanical fixing of joints (plaster bandages, skeletal traction) and followed in some cases by deficit of a muscular exercise. Restriction of mobility due to action of overloads or the increased gravity is not followed by the phenomena hypodynamias (see).
The long time being on a bed rest, for various reasons lost ability to movement at defeat of the joint and copular device (arthritises, a periarthritis) and muscles (miozita), and also at patients with paresis and paralyzes, parkinsonism occurs in the conditions of clinic at patients (see. Paralyses, paresis , Parkinsonism ).
Widespread introduction of mechanization and automation of work on production and in life leads to decrease in a physical activity and in this regard to G.'s distribution in combination with a hypodynamia in modern society. Leads to a detrenirovannost of homeostatic mechanisms, to decrease in adaptive and compensatory reactions, to presenilation, contributes to a number of diseases. Specific effects of G. are changes of a functional and structural basis of locomotions (a tutopodvizhnost of joints, a diskoordination of movements, disorder of movement skills). Various adverse effects of a slow-moving way of life formed the basis for allocation by some authors of a new nosological form — a hypokinetic disease [Krauss, Raab (N. to Kraus, W. Raab), 1961; A. V. Korobkov et al., 1968, etc.].
The major pathogenetic factor of G. which is followed by a hypodynamia is decrease in weight load of basic structures, easing intero-and a proprioceptive afferentation and the detrenirovannost of statotonichesky anti-gravitational regulatory mechanisms connected with it.
The problem G. became particularly important and in space medicine since stay in limited space of a cabin of the spaceship in bezoporny situation significantly changes a stereotype of a physical activity and coordination of movements. Besides, in state of weightlessness at the astronaut loads of the musculoskeletal device considerably decrease thanks to what G. is supplemented with a condition of a hypodynamia. Development of astronautics demanded experimental studying of influence of G. on an organism.
Long (to 70 days) restriction of a physical activity with switching off of statokinetic reflexes (a high bed rest) at healthy young people was model of the combined influence of G. and a hypodynamia. It turned out that it causes a complex of polymorphic frustration. Power exchange with a tendency of negative nitrogenous balance, standard metabolism and oxygen consumption decreases; the oxygen debt at the low-changed external respiration increases. Allocation with urine of nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus and especially calcium increases that is combined with osteoporosis. Certain shifts happen in processes of exchange of electrolytes, waters, microelements, corticosteroids, enzymes, vitamins. Appetite is lost, motor function of intestines decreases. Body weight at the expense of an atrophy of muscles at nek-rum is lost increase of a fatty component. Reorganization of neurohormonal regulations of vegetativnovistseralny functions, especially cardiovascular system is noted: inertness of vascular reactions, orthostatic hypotension with unconscious states. On an ECG signs of disturbance of a trophicity of a myocardium with the phenomena of delay of conductivity and shifts of phase structure of a cardial cycle are found. Reactivity of cardiovascular system on pharmakol, influences changes. Due to the oppression of an immunoreactivity conditionally pathogenic flora is activated. A part of examinees has acute or infectious processes escalate hron.
Psychological disturbances are shown in the emotional lability increasing before neurotic failures. The day-night rhythm of a dream and wakefulness is broken. Often the headache, heavy feeling arises in the head, muscle pain. With 2 — hypotonia, a hypotrophy and weakness, especially muscles of legs are defined 4th week. On EM G (see. Electromyography ) decrease in bioelectric activity comes to light. Often find symptoms of oral automatism, a tremor of hands, a lack of coordination.
The most characteristic changes of EEG (see. Elektroentsefalografiya ) are expressed in a dizritmiya, congestive exaltation of an alpha rhythm, shift of cortical rhythmics towards slow waves.
Prevention consists in elimination of a slow-moving way of life (occupations to lay down. physical culture of the house, implementation of lechebnofizkulturny complexes in the labor mode). Occupations with the methodologist, and also the constant movements by healthy extremities are recommended to patients with restriction of movements. At patients with paralyzes or paresis of occupation to lay down. shall be combined by physical culture with drug treatment (purpose of the drugs improving neuromuscular conductivity, regulating a muscle tone).
See also Hypodynamia .
Bibliography: Fundamentals of bioastronautics and medicine, under the editorship of O. G. Gazenko and M. Calvin, t. 2 — 3, M., 1975, bibliogr.; P and N about in A. G., L about z and V.'s N of Page 1v M and-haylenkoa. A. Neurologic syndromes of a gipokinezichesky disease, in book: Systems of adaptation of the person and external environment, under the editorship of V. G. Artamonova, etc., page 124, L., 1975; P and N about in A. G. and d river. Autogenic training, page 180, JI., 1973; Parin V. V. and Fedorov B. M. O mechanisms of change of reactivity of an organism at a hypokinesia, in book: Aviatsion * and kosmich. medical, under the editorship of V. V. Parin, t. 2, page 116, M., 1969; Kraus H. Raab W. Hypokinetic disease, Springfield,