HUXLEY Andrew

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

HUXLEY Endryo (Huxley Andrew Fielding, sort. in 1917) — the English physiologist, the master of arts, professor, the Nobel Prize laureate (1963).

Graduated in Cambridge where specialized in the field of anatomy, medicine and physiology. Since 1939 in sea biological laboratory in Plymouth together with A. Hodzhkin investigated biopotentials of huge axons of a squid. From 1941 to 1960 the scientist of college of the Holy Trinity in Cambridge. In 1952 — 1960 the dean of this college. In 1960 headed department of physiology in college London un-that.

E. Huxley is known as the researcher of the physical and chemical changes happening in nerve fibrils at their excitement and in muscles at reduction. In 1949 together with R. Stampfli, investigating passing of impulses in myelin nerve fibrils, showed that with increase in distance between Ranvye's interceptions the speed of carrying out excitement decreases. The theoretical quantitative model of the reduced sarcomere is for the first time offered them and the corresponding calculations are made. He investigating ultrathin sections of a cross-striped muscle, along with Huxley (H. E. Huxley) described the structural changes arising in the course of muscular contraction.

E. Huxley invented a mikromaniiu-lyator and the microtome for electronic and microscopic cuts, and also developed a method of studying of the cross striation in the isolated muscle fiber changing in parallel with generation of action potential. Working together with

A. Hodzhkin and his employees at a classical object for studying of bioelectric properties of excitable membranes — a huge axon of a squid, E. Huxley showed that the membrane is loaded positively on a maximum of action potential. In 1949 these researchers stated a hypothesis, according to a cut during generation of action potential the membrane becomes selectively permeable for ions of sodium. In 1954 E. Huxley established that in time and after passing of the nervous impulse causing sufficient depolarization of a membrane its permeability for potassium ions and sodium changes (see Excitement). Nobel Prize of E. Huxley together with

A. Hodzhkin and J. Ekkls it is awarded for opening of ionic mechanisms of excitement and braking in peripheral and central parts of nervous cells.

E. Huxley is the member (1955), and then the chairman London royal about-va, the honorary member of many high fur boots of the different countries.

Works: Electrical processes in nerve conduction, in book: Ion transport across membranes, ed. by H. T. Clarke, p. 23, N. Y., 1954; Muscle structure and theories of contraction, Progr. Biophys. Chern., v. 7, river 255, 1957; Ion movements during nerve activity, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., v. 81, p. 221, 1959; The quantitative analysis of excitation and conduction in nerve, in book: Les prix Nobel en 1963, p. 242, Stockholm, 1964.

Bibliography:

Les Prix Nobel en 1963, p. 38, Stockholm, 1964. E. JI. Golubeva.

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