HUNGARY (The Hungarian People's Republic, VNR) — the state in the Center. To Europe. The area is 93 030 km 2 . The population — 10 510 thousand people (for January 1, 1975). The capital — Budapest (the St. 2 million zhit., 1974). In the administrative relation it is divided into 19 areas (medya); 5 cities (Budapest, Debrecen, Miskolc, Pech and Szeged) are equated to a medya. Ofits. language — Hungarian.
Relief: 2/3 territories of the country make plains, 1/3 — hilly hilly terrains. Climate — moderate, continental.
Century — the socialist state, the people's republic. The supreme body of the government and the only legislature — the State meeting.
Defeat by the Soviet troops of the German-Hungarian fascists facilitated development developing in V. since fall of 1944 of a revolutionary situation in all-democratic revolution, in the course the cut was liquidated a bourgeois and landowner system, agrarian reform is undertaken, banks, the industrial enterprises are nationalized. To summer of 1948 process of development of all-democratic revolution into socialist came to the end.
It agrees the constitution adopted in August, 1949 V. was proclaimed the people's republic, construction of socialist society was developed in the country. In recovery of the national economy to the Hungarian people full assistance was given by the Soviet Union. In 1948 between the Soviet Union and V. the Treaty of friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance was signed. Century — the member of SEV since January, 1949 the VIII congress of the Hungarian Socialist Labour Party (HSLP) in November, 1962 stated completion of creation of bases of socialism in the country. In decisions of the X congress of VSRP (November, 1970) it is noted that the main task of party and V.'s people is full creation of socialism.
Before establishment of public authority V. was the agrarian-industrial country. Agriculture gave the prevailing share of the national income. For years of public authority V. became the industrial and agrarian country with the developed agriculture. Several times the industrial capacity of the country increased. 80% of national revenue are yielded by the industry, 20% — agriculture. From industries the mechanical engineering, metal-working industry, metallurgical, mining, chemical, rubber, textile and food are developed. In agriculture are developed agriculture (hl. obr. grain crops), vegetable growing, wine growing, fruit growing, livestock production. Considerably welfare of workers increased. Great success is achieved in cultural development, sciences, educations.
The main population of the country — Hungarians (96%), are available also Slovaks, Romanians, Germans, Croats, Serbians, Roma, etc.
Vital rates are presented in tab. 1.
As a result of radical social and economic restructurings demographic indicators in socialist V. considerably improved. Apparently from the data presented in tab. 1, for years of public authority falloff of indicators of child mortality is noted. Average life expectancy (1972) — 70,2 years (men — 67,3, women — 73,2).
In structure of incidence diseases of a respiratory organs, a nervous system and sense bodys, digestive organs, blood circulations and injuries prevail (more than 80%). In structure of causes of death — cardiovascular diseases (53,9%), malignant new growths (20,05%), injuries (8,3%), diseases of a respiratory organs of not tubercular etiology (3,52%); infectious and parasitic diseases among causes of death make only 1,89%.
The in-t of cardiology organized in 1950 — 1960 State in-t of rheumatology and balneology, State, Oncological the in-t having powerful bed fund are the scientific and methodical centers coordinating all work on fight against cardiovascular, oncological and nek-ry others which is conducted in the country hron, diseases. For years of socialist construction in V. planned complex fight against cardiovascular diseases and malignant new growths is organized, the main attention is paid to early identification and treatment of patients. According to statistical data, indicators of cancer cases grow in V. that is explained along with other reasons by improvement of diagnosis.
As a result of social and economic transformations for years of public authority and achievements of health care of socialist V. the quantity of infectious and parasitic diseases sharply decreased. Thanks to mass vaccination of children in V. poliomyelitis (in 1972 only 2 cases against 298 in 1949 are registered) is almost liquidated, diphtheria mortality sharply decreased and incidence by it (from 67,0 in 1949 to 0,1 in 1972 by 100 thousand population) and whooping cough was reduced (to 0,6 by 100 thousand population). Before World War II tuberculosis in V. was social disaster. Increase in welfare of the population, increase in allocations for fight against tuberculosis, development of wide network of TB facilities allowed to achieve considerable progress for short term — only from 1950 for 1972 incidence of tuberculosis decreased with 490 to 79 by 100 thousand population, including among children aged up to 15 years — with 135 (1960) to 4 (1972).
Organization of health care
The beginning of the organization of the hospital help in V. belongs to 12 — 13 centuries. In 18 century for fight against epidemics of plague constants a dignity were created. commissions. Since 1752 in all cities of regional subordination health officers worked. From 1850 for 1880 the working class of V. achieved the organization of society for insurance of workers and assistance to disabled people, several statutes on labor protection, in 1891 — the law on obligatory insurance, in 1907 — about insurance on a case of an injury were published. However operation of these laws had limited character. Many provisions them were not carried out.
On March 21, 1919 as a result of a victory of proletarian revolution the power in V. passed to working class, V. was proclaimed the Soviet Republic. Care about health of the people was undertaken by the state; hospitals, sanatoria, drugstores were nationalized, free treatment of patients in hospitals is entered. In 133 days of existence of the Hungarian Soviet Republic in the field of health care it was made much more, than for many decades under capitalism.
The fascist government of Horthy, having seized power, destroyed all gains of working class in the field of health care. During a counterrevolution and fascism (1920 — 1945) incidence of infectious diseases, incidence and tuberculosis mortality sharply increased (in 1938 on everyone 10 000 zhit. 14 TB patients were necessary). In the years of World War II child mortality in certain areas of the country increased to 200 on 1000 live-born, tuberculosis mortality exceeded 250 cases on 100 thousand population. During fascist occupation most hospitals was destroyed, by the beginning of 1945 in hospitals of the country there were only 27 thousand beds.
Before establishment of public authority in V. there was no uniform system of the management of health care. A part of medical institutions was subordinated to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, a part was under authority of various economic departments. Training of doctors, druggists and midwifes logged in national education.
In 1945 the Ministry of Social Welfare was created, competence to-rogo included also the solution of questions of health care. During socialist construction to lay down. institutions, drugstores, pharm, the plants, the plants' the medical industries were also nationalized, the uniform system of social insurance is entered. Social insurance in V. is function of the state and extends to all workers (including and to the persons occupied in agriculture) and to their families.
The principles of socialist health care — the state nature of medical aid, its high qualification, general availability and free of charge, the preventive direction, planned character, unity of science and practice, participation of the public in public health care were the basis for development of health care of V.
In 1950 the Ministry of Health of V. Zadachi of management of health care at the level of area was created carries out public health department of regional council. Functions local (regional, city, etc.) the managements of health care are carried out by departments and groups of health care of executive committees of local councils. The system of local medical service is organized; instead of private room medical practice, edge existed before establishment of public authority, policlinics were created, the network stationary is expanded to lay down. institutions, it is created medical - a dignity. service at the enterprises, new laws on labor protection are entered, etc.
the Hospital help
In 1971 — 1972 in the country was 173 stationary to lay down. institutions; specialized clinics at medical and research in-ta, the general hospitals (regional, city, regional), specialized hospitals (tubercular, psychiatric, etc.), children's hospitals, maternity homes, balnearies, klimatolechebnitsa, etc. In network stationary to lay down. institutions also so-called social houses for chronically sick — the general type and specialized (tubercular, psychiatric), at home for the children suffering from physical and mental defects enter.
Along with proliferation quality of the hospital help considerably improved, its technical equipment increased, specialization of bed fund extended.
The data reflecting growth of bed fund and security with beds of the population of V. are presented in tab. 2.
All clinics of four highest medical educational institutions of the country, more than 30 clinics of research in-t and Ying-that improvements of doctors perform functions of head medical institutions (in the field of surgery, oncology, hematology, pulmonology, cardiology, etc.).
The largest multi-field and specialized hospitals are under direct authority of the Ministry of Health. Clinics of medical and research in-t and separate specialized hospitals treat them.
The extra hospital help
In the regional centers there are regional policlinics with specialized departments which are a part of regional hospital. Most district and city clinics are merged into hospitals, are available as well independent polyclinic institutions.
Polyclinic service is carried out by the territorial principle by district doctors, the dispensary method is the basis for rendering the extra hospital help to the population. One district doctor and one local sister fall approximately on 2,5 thousand inhabitants.
In 1972 in the country there were 184 policlinics, 3898 centers of health (out-patient clinics), 688 posts of medical aid and 130 mobile out-patient clinics; 186 tubercular, 124 skin venero logical, 169 oncological, 170 medico-sports and 63 psychiatric clinics.
By the local principle also service of workers industrial and page is organized - x. the enterprises (in 1973 there were 1745 district doctors of the enterprises).
Development of network of extra medical institutions in V., improvement of their activity and growth of number of the medical staff occupied in them promoted upgrading of an ambulatory care, expansion of its volume, general availability and significant increase in negotiability.
The emergency service and patients it is transported by public service of ambulance (in 1973 there were 158 stations of emergency medical service).
Service of women and children
After establishment of public authority in V. the state system of health protection of mothers and children was created. There is a wide network of institutions on protection of motherhood, an infancy and childhood; tasks of these institutions include also protection of youth and questions of planning of a family. In 1972 7,8 obstetric and gynecologic beds, 8,1 children's beds (in 1953 they respectively made 5,9 and 4,1) were the share of 10 thousand population.
According to the code about work it is forbidden to direct women to unhealthy work; women from 4th month of pregnancy and the nursing mothers having children to 9-month age are released from heavy physical. work, work during a night shift and overtime work; till the birth of the child leave with a general duration of 20 weeks with preservation of full earnings is granted. In case of pathological childbirth issue lasts on 4 weeks. Mother can bring up the child of the house to 3-year age, receiving monthly benefit from the state, the working experience is not interrupted.
Lech. - professional, service of the children's population in rural areas is carried out by district doctors, in the cities — local pediatricians (it is the share of 1 doctor apprx. 1200 children). There are children's departments of policlinics, hospitals, and also children's clinics and sanatoria. The mobile specialized health service gives help to district doctors in service of the children living in rural areas. Activity of patronage sisters whose task is overseeing by the state of health of pregnant women and newborns iod the direct guide of the doctor is of great importance. In the country there is a wide network of a day nursery, in 1973 in them there were 55 thousand places.
The sanitary and epidemiologic service
At the Ministry of Health is available the Management of hygiene and epidemiology which is directly leading activity a dignity. - epid, bodies of the country. Till 1945 in V. did not exist state a dignity. - epid. services. In 1950 bacterial, laboratories, in 1951 — the State sanitary inspection were created local. In all cities of regional subordination, and also in the capital are available a dignity. - epid. stations which carry out the current and precautionary dignity. supervision. In 1972 in V. was 24 city and regional dignity. - epid, stations with regional a dignity. - epid, services. Besides, in the cities of regional subordination there is a dignity. - epid. groups. Dignity. - epid, supervision, and also control of observance a gigabyte. norms and rules the dignity enters competence. inspectors. Scientific and methodical management dignity. - epid, service carry out head in-you this profile. Fight against infectious diseases is carried out within uniform system to lay down. - the prof. and a dignity. - epid. institutions. In 1970 the public toxicological information service is created, edges everything registers the toxicants applied in the industry and other industries.
The sanatorium help
the Management of sanatoria and balneolechebnitsa is carried out by the Ministry of Health and local councils. The scientific and methodical center of balneolechebnitsa and resorts is State in-t of rheumatology and balneology. Century by right it is considered the country to lay down. sources and climatic to lay down. areas. In Budapest there are 123 curative mineral sources of various chemical structure. There are balneological resorts Balatonfyured (see), Shiofok, Badachon, Keneshe, Heviz (see), the Parade, Sopron, Haydusoboslo, Harkan, Miskolc-Tapoltsa, Kekeshtete, and also resorts and recreation facilities in mountains: Gayatete, Lillafyured (see), Mechek, etc. Annually according to trade-union permits are treated and have a rest apprx. 200 thousand persons.
Pharmaceutical business and medical industry. Has century developed pharm, the industry, a considerable part of its products goes for export. Research activity in the field of the medicinal and medical industry is carried out in two in-ta — Pharm. in-that and Ying-that medical instrument making. The state control of medicines is made Pharm, in-volume and Ying volume of health care.
In the country (1973) there were 4229 druggists, from them 651 with vocational education; 1398 public drugstores (1 drugstore on 7460 zhit.). Besides, there are so-called 800 manual drugstores under the authority of district doctors. Drugs for some contingents of the population and diseases sick with a row (for children, for TB patients, a diabetes mellitus, etc.) are given free of charge.
Health care workforce
In V. after 1945 the steady growth of number of doctors and average medical shots is noted. Data on growth of number of doctors in V. and security of the population with doctors are presented in tab. 3.
In 1971 the number of average medics was equal in V. 75 961 (56,9 on 10 000 population), from them nurses — 21 089 (20,2 on 10 000 population), 9018 children's sisters, 4148 patronage sisters, 3705 local sisters, 1900 midwifes.
Medical education. Training of doctors and druggists with the higher education in V. has 200-year history. In 1769 in Nadsombat was created the country's first by medical f-t which became afterwards a basis Budapest medical in-that.
Systematic development of socialist health care demanded the systematic and strengthened training of medical specialists. Till 1951 preparation of the highest medical shots was carried out on a medical f-takh of high fur boots. In 1951 medical f-you high fur boots were transformed in independent medical in-you. Training of doctors is carried out to V. in four medical in-ta in the cities of Budapest, Szeged, Peche, Debrecen. In Budapest and Szeged in medical in-ta there are and pharm, faculties. Training of stomatologists is carried out in the Budapest, Pechsky and Szeged medical in-t. Duration of training on to lay down. f-takh — 6 years, on dental — 5 years. The release of medical specialists with the higher education in 1972 made 1064 people, including 156 stomatologists, 208 druggists. Training of paramedical staff is carried out at high specialized medical schools (the term of training 4 years), specialized medical schools (2 — 3 years) and on special courses (1 — 2 years). The release of average medics in 1972 made 5523 (all studied in 1972 11 392).
Improvement of doctors and druggists is carried out since 1956, after creation Ying-that improvements of doctors, 21 departments are a part to-rogo. Main forms of improvement: internal and correspondence courses. It is provided that doctors shall undergo improvement each 3 — 5 years. A condition of receiving a rank of the specialist doctor is the certain working experience established depending on this specialty and also examination of the Central vrachebnoattestatsionny commission. The system of improvement of paramedical staff is organized since 1956
by Scientific work in the field of medicine the Ministry of Health, medical department of Academy of Sciences of V. and it in-you direct: biochemistry, experimental medicine, genetics, children's psychology and a number of research in-t — Sanitary in-t, Ying t of occupational health, Ying t of hygiene of food, Oncological in-t, Ying t of neurosurgery, Ying t of balneology and rheumatism, Ying t of hemotransfusion, Ying t of traumatology.
The Hungarian medical science gave to the world of many outstanding figures of medicine. Among them the obstetrician-gynecologist I. Zemmeljveys who opened the infectious nature of a puerperal fever, developed methods of its prevention and founded the first-ever aseptic obstetric clinic; hygienist Y. Fodor is the organizer of the world's second department of public hygiene: one of founders of the theory of neurons Lenkhoshshek (M. of Lenhossek, 1863 — 1937), Bekesha's engineer-physicist (Gy. Bekesy, sort. in 1899), conferred the Nobel Prize for a research of the mechanism of hearing:
pathophysiologist Hedyesh (E. Hogyes, 1847 — 1906); therapists Sh. Koranyi, I. Rusnyak; the neuropathologist Schaffer (To. Schaffer, 1864 — 1939); oculists Groce (E. Grosz, 1865 — 1941), etc.
Bystry development of science began Imre (J. Imre, 1884 — 1945) after release of the country from under a fascist yoke and establishment of a people's democratic system. In the field of medicine traditions of the Hungarian medical school successfully develop and recent trends are developed. Sh. Koranyi and his followers Balint (P. Balint, sort. in 1911), A. Babich, P. Gegeshi-Kishsh, P. Gemeri, E. Kerpel-Froniush, Renyi-Vamosh (F.Renyi-Yamos, sort. in 1910) study the blood circulatory system. Researches of a nervous system, traditional for the Hungarian medicine, continue Kernei (a sort. in 1901), K. Lishshak, Much attention is paid to studying of tumors [Balo (J. Balo, a sort. in 1895), L. Harangi, Kellner (V. of Kellner, a sort. in 1904)]. Problems of endocrinology are developed [Yules (M. of Julesz, a sort. in 1904), Radnot (M. of Radnot, a sort. in 1911), Shosh (J. Sos, sort. in 1906)], surgeries of a thorax [Rubanyi (P. Rubanyi. sort. in 1904), Shebesten (1887 — 1954)] and heart surgeries [Kudas (J. Kudasz, a sort. in 1904), I. Littmann]. Researches in the field of pharmacology [Ishshekuts (V. Issekutz. sort. in 1886), Yancho (M. of Jancso, 1903 — 1966), Knoll (J. Knoll, a sort. in 1925) ] growth was promoted Hungarian pharm, by the industries. Researches in the field of genetics are conducted, questions of environmental control are studied.
The Hungarian scientists-physicians take part in scientific work of 170 medical institutions of the socialist countries, including in 70 institutions of the Soviet Union. Cooperation of B. with the USSR in the field of medical science and health care it is carried out within intergovernmental agreements on plans of cultural and scientific cooperation since 1959. Since 1968 interdepartmental cooperation with the USSR, including and on medicine, on exchange of information materials, plans of scientific research, exchange of specialists for studying of experience, to carrying out joint researches, rendering the advisory help to bodies and healthcare institutions of the cooperating parties, etc. is carried out. Along with it there is an InterAcademy cooperation between V. and the USSR. State the in-t of occupational health (Budapest) is institute initiator on a problem «occupational health and rehabilitation» in group of the cooperating socialist countries.
Activity of scientists-physicians, doctors and workers of health care of V. is highly appreciated by the state. From 1948 to 1973 79 physicians awards of Koshut and 8 — the State award were conferred.
In V. 68 medical magazines with a general circulation of 90 thousand copies a year are issued.
Budget of health care. In 1973 12,7% of the national income were allocated for social security and health care. On development of health care it is released apprx. 3,4% of the national income.
Bibliography: Hungarian statistical reference book, 1975, Budapest, 1975; 25 years of the Hungarian health care, sost. G. Khan, the lane with Wenger., Budapest, 1970; H of e-mesh of Ya. Znakomtes — Hungary, lane with Wenger., Budapest, 1974; Health services in Europe, the European regional office, page 135, Copenhagen, WHO, 1975.
E. Shulteys, L. I. Vladimirov.