From Big Medical Encyclopedia

HUMORAL REGULATION (Latin humor liquid) — one of mechanisms of regulation of processes of life activity; it is carried out through fluid mediums of an organism by means of biologically active agents emitted by cells, fabrics and bodies in the course of their functioning.

Mechanisms Are most characteristic of fauna at the lowest stages of its development. In the course of evolution they were gradually supplemented with more difficult and more perfect mechanisms of nervous control. In process of differentiation and improvement of live systems humoral bonds at the highest steps of development more and more submit to the nervous device. Almost inseparable interaction between nervous and humoral components of regulatory process is established (see. Neurohumoral regulation ). Numerous metabolic products can affect as irritants not only directly membranes and structures of cells (see. Cell , Membranes biological ), but also on nerve terminations (see. Chemoceptors ), causing a reflex way defined fiziol, and biochemical, reactions. Biologically active agents are carried by a blood flow on all organism, however only in certain places (the so-called resulting bodies) they cause purposeful specific reactions, entering interaction with effectors or the corresponding receptor educations.

The state and activity of the most nervous system depend not only on the impulses arriving from surrounding and internal environment, but also on supply with blood and metabolism of the structural elements entering it, on structure, physical. - chemical and biol, properties of the intercellular lymph (microenvironment) surrounding them. Humoral information transfer from one nervous cell to another happens to the help of special chemical substances — mediators (see). The unused and not split mediators come to a blood flow and take part in (not mediator, or distantny, their action).

An important role in is played by hormones (see. Hormonal regulation ), and also the various specific and nonspecific products of interstitial exchange combined under the general name of metabolites. Refer the numerous chemical connections of the found-out and obscure nature possessing characteristic biol to them, properties and defiant strictly outlined fiziol, or biochemical, effects.

Biol, activity of fluid mediums of an organism is caused substantially by a condition of the synthesizing and splitting fermental systems, existence of activators and inhibitors, binding and release of substrates of untied forms, education and disintegration difficult proteinaceous polisakharidnykh complexes, a ratio of electrolytes and microelements etc.

In usual fiziol, conditions the content of biologically active agents in blood is changeable and, being connected with daily, seasonal, climatic, geographical and other influences, fluctuates in certain borders (see. Homeostasis ).

In laboratory and a wedge, conditions the condition Is estimated based on the ratio of biologically active agents in blood and urine. Special methods of dynamic definition of various biologically active agents in blood and allocations of an organism using adequate functional trials are developed.

At some forms of nervous and visceral pathology (e.g., allergic states, vegetative dystonias, ulcer and an idiopathic hypertensia, defeats of hypothalamic and limbiko-reticular educations) more or less expressed disturbances are observed. In many cases emergence and a current patol, process is caused by disturbance of homeostatic ratios between biologically active agents in internal environment of an organism. At the same time along with education patol, products of metabolism the phenomena of an imbalance, hyper - and hypocompensations of humoral mechanisms caused by insufficiency or an overstrain of protective forces of an organism can be observed. As a rule, humoral and hormonal disturbances precede frustration fiziol, functions or to emergence patol, the phenomena.

Studying has essential value not only for the diagnosis, the forecast and classification of some forms of pathology, but also for timely performing rational pathogenetic therapy.

See also Regulation (in biological systems) .

Bibliography: Iost X. Physiology of a cell, the lane with English, M., 1975; Kassil G. N. Science about pain, page 117, M., 1975; L and shouting and. Metabolic and pharmacological fundamentals of neurophysiology, the lane with fr., M., 1974 *, bibliogr.; Physiology in clinical practice, under the editorship of N. I. Gra-shchenkov, M., 1966; Sh e p p e r Zh. Fiziologiya of work (ergonomy), the lane with fr., page 253, M., 1973; Mechanisms of release of biogenic amines, ed. by U. S. Euler a. o., Oxford, 1966; Monnier M. Functions of the nervous system, v. 1 — 2, Amsterdam a. o., 1968 — 1970.

Of H. Kassil.