From Big Medical Encyclopedia

HUMAN ENGINEERING — the section of psychology studying processes of information exchange of the person and technical devices.

The main object of Nominative is the system of people — the car considered as a special case of managing systems. Nominative investigates processes of reception, processing and storage by the person of information arriving from technical devices (means of display of information): actions of the person for programming, management and control of operation of machines; dependence of processes of information exchange of the person and technical devices on features of mental functions (perception, memory, imagination, thinking), states (loudspeakers of working capacity, emotions, installations, etc.) and properties (abilities, temperament, etc.) person; psikhol, the factors influencing efficiency and reliability of systems of people — the car; mechanisms of mental regulation of labor actions. Nominative, e.g., studies how many the signals transmitted by display of information the person can apprehend in unit of time as the speed and accuracy of actions of the person depends on a way of signaling, what influence of conditions of activity of the person on his mental state what patterns of processing of information by the person, etc. A special problem of Nominative is design of activity of the person operator in newly created systems of people — the car. This Nominative uses during the development, design and operation of systems of people — the car for the purpose of increase in their efficiency and reliability, for convenience of work of people, and also rationalization of work of the person. Results engineering psikhol. researches quite often allow to find essentially new approaches to the solution of technical tasks. So, e.g., on the basis of studying of patterns of vision by psychologists together with engineers the means of display of information allowing to replace indications of a set of devices with one complete image are developed; on the basis of comparative analysis of sight, hearing and touch the technical devices allowing to transform visual signals in acoustic and vice versa are offered. Nominative specialists take part in the solution of such questions as distribution of functions between the person and car in control systems and their integration; assessment of reasonable degree industrial automation (see) in respect of its influence on activity of the person; definition of optimal conditions of activity of the person operator, ways of transfer to it of information, the organizations of his workplace and so forth

widely uses Nominative methods of psychology and physiology of work (see. Work ), system engineerings (see). The complex of the methods applied at different steps of creation of systems of people — the car, is various. At initial stages of development the analysis of system of people — the car is carried out, as a result to-rogo its structure and functions are defined, relationship of its elements, operating conditions, flows of the circulating information, the factors limiting possibilities of use of system comes to light. Also methods of a professiografiya (the description of a profession), methods psikhol, and psikhofiziol, a laboratory experiment (e.g., for measurement of speed and accuracy of an identification of signals, time of motor reactions, etc.), definitions are used algorithm (see) separate elements of activity, studying of opinions of experienced operators. Specifics of an experiment in Nominative consist that in it the activity (or its elements) existing only in the project (the so-called projecting experiment) is reproduced. The important role in system of methods of Nominative belongs to ways of assessment of test pieces of systems of people — the car. Here the natural experiment, timing (measurement of time expenditure on performance of these or those actions), the analysis of opinions of operators, methods of measurement of working capacity, etc. are widely applied. At an engineering psikhol. to assessment of systems of people — the car integral quantitative criteria of efficiency and reliability of activity of the person are used.

In use systems the statistical data characterizing their efficiency and reliability collect, the reasons of decrease in these indicators in comparison with settlement are analyzed (cases of failures, etc.). These data consider during the development of new samples of systems.

Early studies engineering psikhol. type were carried out to the USSR in the 20th g of 20 century. As the independent direction of Nominative began to develop in the years of World War II when the operating experience of military equipment showed that efficiency and reliability of its use significantly depend on human factors. Initiators of creation of this direction were an amer. and English psychologists [A. Chapanis, E. J. McCormic, R. A. Me Farland, Fitts (R. M. Fitts), F. Bartlett, D. Broadbent, etc.].

Originally Nominative developed as a branch of experimental psychology and was called as applied experimental psychology.

In the USSR questions of Nominative began to be developed intensively in the 50th in connection with development of automated control systems (see. Automated control system ), high-speed automobiles, astronautics etc. The first laboratory of human engineering was created in Leningrad un-those in 1959. From 60th of a problem of Nominative are developed in many psikhol., and also partially technical, medical and fiziol, institutions of the country.

A big role in formation of Nominative as scientific discipline, boundary for psikhol, and technical science, played cybernetics (see), system engineering (see), experimental psychology, psychology of work, human physiology, physiology of work, air and space medicine.

Along with psychology of work, physiology of work, occupational health (see), a production esthetics, anthropometry of Nominative is a component ergonomics (see).

Further development of Nominative is caused by technical progress and the related increase of a role of human factors (psychological, physiological and other properties of the person) in development, design and operation of the equipment. Mechanization and the industrial automation, development of systems of distance steering, increase in complexity of the managed processes leads to changes of functions of the person and conditions of his work; ratios between physical change. and brainwork; there is a need of adaptation of the equipment to the person, first of all to mental properties, functions and processes.

Bibliography: Poor G. 3. Human engineering on production, Kiev, 1975, bibliogr.; V. F Venda. Human engineering and synthesis of systems of display of information, M., 1975, bibliogr.; Military human engineering, under the editorship of B. F. Lomov, etc., M., 1970; Kind and Lensk Yu. P., etc. Methods of engineering and psychological researches in aircraft, M., 1975, bibliogr.; Human engineering, under the editorship of A. N. Leontyev, M., 1964; Human engineering in use to design of the equipment, the lane with English, under the editorship of B. F. Lomov and V. I. Petrov, M., 1971; Krylov A. A. of people in automated control systems, L., 1972, bibliogr.; Lomov B. F. of people and technician, sketches of human engineering, M., 1966, bibliogr.; P l and t about N about in K. K. Questions of psychology of work, M., 1970, bibliogr.; Psychology and the equipment, under the editorship of D. A. Oshanina, M., 1965; P at ah and V. F. N, etc. Human engineering, theory, methodology, practical application, M., 1977; Singleton B.T. Introduction to ergonomics, the lane with English, M., 1974; Chapanis A. Research techniques in human engineering, Baltimore, 1965; With r an i k K. J. W. Theory of the human operator in control systems, Brit. J. Psychol., v. 38, pt 2, p. 56, pt 3, p. 142, 1947; Hacker W. Allgemeine Arbeits-und Ingenieur-psychologie, B., 1973, Bibliogr.; Human engineering guide to equipment design, ed. by H. P. van Cott a. R. G. Kinkade, Washington, 1972.

B. F. Lomov.