HOOKS Alexander Nikolaevich (1878 — 1952) is the Soviet therapist-hematologist, the academician of AMH (1948), zasl. scientist of the Uzbek SSR (1939).
Having ended in 1901 medical f-t Moscow un-that, worked in Bakhrushinskaya and Sokolnichesky-tsakh Moscow. In 1909 protected dokt, the thesis on a subject about an origin and relationship of leukocytes and a leukocytosis. Since 1911 would work in Old and Ekaterina's. Since 1914 the privatdozent, since 1918 professional. Moscow un-that. In 1919 took part in the organization medical f-that Turkestan (since 1924. Average and Asian) un-that, in Krom headed faculty therapeutic clinic, and in 1927 — 1930 and clinic of tropical diseases. In 1931 — 1952. A. N. Kryukov directed clinic of emergency treatment Ying-that of Sklifosovsky in Moscow and at the same time, since 1934, the prof. of department of therapy of TsIU was. In days of the Great Patriotic War it was hl. therapist evakogospitaly Narkomzdrava of the USSR.
A. N. Kryukov published apprx. 90 scientific works devoted to problems of hematology, tropical pathology and emergency treatment. In 1923 it for the first time in the USSR described a spra and together with V. A. Smirnov diagnosed a brucellosis for the person by seeding of a hemoculture of Brucella melitensis. It described the fluctuation of the sizes of a liver at a hepatic fascioliasis which received the name of a symptom of Kryukov. A. N. Kryukov is one of founders of domestic hematology. He created the so-called moderate and unitary theory of a hemopoiesis, the essence a cut consists that all blood cells come from a uniform «indifferent» mezenkhimny cell, originative to a lymphoidocyte (Kryukov's lymphoidocyte — Pappengeyma) — the cell externally similar to a lymphocyte, but different nezhnosetchaty («leptokhromatichesky») structure of a kernel with nukleola.
In the functional relation the lymphoidocyte is represented as a parent cell for all blood elements. Development of a lymphoidocyte in this or that way is defined by the corresponding incentives from the environment («microenvironment»). The moderate and unitary theory of a hemopoiesis which was confirmed by studying of a morphogenesis of blood elements of an embryo and also at patol, changes of system of blood (leukoses), for the time was progressive.
On the basis of intravital studying of marrow A. N. Kryukov for the first time found a megaloblastichesky hemopoiesis at periitsiozny to a spr (anemias) and found out a role of the broken intestinal absorption in its development.
Studying by A. N. Kryukov gistol. changes of vessels at a hemorrhagic capillary toxicosis (Shenleyn's disease — Genokh), the shown defeat of larger vessels (arterioles), allowed it to designate this disease as «hemorrhagic vasculitis».
A. N. Kryukov created school of therapists-hematologists. Among them there is G. A. Alekseev, I. A. Kassirsky, 3. I. Umidova, etc.
A. N. Kryukov is awarded by the Order of Lenin, an award of the Labour Red Banner and medals.
Works: About an origin and relationship of leukocytes and about a leukocytosis, a yew., M., 1909; Untersuchungen uber Struetur der Blutzellen, Wien, 1911 (sovm, with Decastello A.); Morphology of blood, p.1 — 3, M., 1920; Anemia at a spra, the Medical thought of Uzbekistan, No. 1, page 28, 1927; Apa-mie bei Sprue, Folia tiaemat. (Lpz.)., Bd 35, S. 329, 1928; The Major clinical syndromes and their assessment, M., 1944; Atlas of blood, M., 1946; Clinical symptomatology of acute internal diseases, M., 1952.
Bibliography: Kassirsky I. A. Professor Alexander Nikolaevich Kryukov, Klien, medical, t. 15, No. 2, page 317, 1937; Moiseyev S. G. Alexander Nikolaevich Kryukov, Rubbed. arkh., t. 46, No. 1, page 131, 1974.
G. A. Alekseev.