From Big Medical Encyclopedia

HONG KONG, (Hong Kong) — the territory in the southeast of China, includes the lake Hong Kong, the site on the peninsula of Jiulong and a number of small islands. The area is 1060 km 2 . Population of 5,2 million people (1983). The administrative center — Hong Kong (Victoria), port of world value (1,5 million zhit., 1979). Ofits. languages — English and Chinese.

The page — possession of Great Britain, is controlled the English governor.

Coast are cut strongly up by bays and gulfs. Mountains up to 939 m high. Climate monsoonal.

Reexport trade and transit operations are important for economy. The industry — sewing, textile, shoe, electronic, electrotechnical, etc. — is presented by the large modern enterprises and numerous small workshops. There are ship-building and ship-repair enterprises. Extraction of iron ore, graphite, tungsten, etc. is conducted. Coastal fishery is developed. Agriculture does not satisfy completely needs of the population. One of important income items is the international tourism. Growth of unemployment and shortage of housing is noted, a part of the population is forced to live in slums or by boats and junks in the conditions of extreme density. Situation is aggravated with inflow of refugees from China.

St. 98% of the population are made by Chinese, the others — British, Indians, Portuguese, etc. The average density of a naveleniye is 4905,6 people on 1 sq.km (1983).

The natural movement of the population, according to official figures, published by WHO, in 1981 (for 1000 zhit.): birth rate 16,9, general mortality 4,8, natural increase 12,1. Child mortality 9,8 on 1000 live-born.

In 1981 the following inf was generally registered. diseases: 7729 cases of tuberculosis, 1738 cases of a viral hepatitis, 1140 cases of chicken pox, 666 cases of food poisonings, 500 cases of a typhoid and paratyphoid, 62 cases of malaria, 55 cases of a leprosy. A problem of health care is the broad use of drugs.

Main reasons for death (1981): cardiovascular diseases (140,2 on 100 000 population), malignant new growths (127,8), cerebrovascular diseases (63,1), pneumonia (41,4), accidents (21,3), nephrites, nephrotic syndromes and nefroza (16,5).

Work of State Healthcare Institutions will be organized by Department of medicine and health care. In 1981 there were 70 medical institutions on 21 042 beds (40,8 beds on 10 thousand population).

The main part of bed fund (15 770 beds) is placed in-tsakh the general profile (31). Would be available rural (18 beds), a maternity home (296 beds), 2-tsy for treatment of TB patients (686 beds), 3 psychiatric (3049 beds), 1 oncological (180 beds) and 1 orthopedic-tsa (200 beds), 2 rehabilitation centers (170 beds), 1 establishment for mentally retarded (200 beds) and 27 medical centers (473 beds).

Extra hospital help was given in out-patient departments of 11 BCs, 48 policlinics and institutions for treatment of individual diseases, from to-rykh for treatment of mental diseases it was intended 7, tuberculosis 23, venereal diseases 16, a leprosy 6, eye diseases 16, skin diseases 10, diseases of an ear, throat, nose 7, and also in 15 physiotherapeutic centers and 11 centers for treatment of occupational diseases. There were 32 dental surgery clinics.

Names of healthcare institutions of S. and the content of their work not completely correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see L echebno-preventive institutions abroad).

In 1981 there were 4097 doctors (7,9 on 10 thousand population), 863 dentists, 388 druggists, 6204 nurses-midwifes, 5064 nurses and 915 of their assistants, 677 health inspectors and other specialists. Training of doctors is carried out in Hong Kong un-those (the term of training of 5 years). In 1977 the number of graduates made 141.

The department of medicine and health care quite often together with various international organizations conducts applied scientific research in the field of virology, bacteriology, testing of pharmaceuticals, etc.

Bibliography: The sixth review of a condition of health care in the world 1973 — 1977, the p. 2, page 545, Geneva, 1981; World health statistics annual Geneva, 1983; World health statistics annual 1980, Health personnel and hospital establishments, p. 5 a. o.,