From Big Medical Encyclopedia

HOCKEY — a sports kokhmandny game using a club and a washer (or a ball).

Among the sports widespread in our country, the hockey occupies one of the leading places.

Distinguish ice hockey with a washer, bandy and field hockey. The team of players in bandy and field hockey consists of 11 field players, in ice hockey — from 6. The game is played on specially marked platform. Time of playing bandy and field hockey respectively 90 and 70 min. (with one break), in ice hockey — 60 min. (with two breaks).

Playing hockey develops speed, dexterity, force, endurance at athletes, develops an initiative, determination, persistence in achievement of the goal, feeling of a collectivism. Under the influence of regular playing hockey mobility of nervous processes increases, the speed of motor reactions increases, touch systems of an organism, especially propriotsentivny and visual are improved. It allows athletes to be guided well during the game, to quickly distribute muscular efforts, to estimate a run time of the movement, to precisely hammer or pass a washer, a ball. Especially high requirements are imposed to the physical and psychoemotional status of the athletes playing ice hockey. Skating with sudden breakthroughs, a stop-] h and m and, r and z and about about r and z and y m and p about in about a company mi, very bystry rate of a game, need on high speed instantly demand all-round physical development, ability to join very quickly in loading to estimate arrangement of players in the field and location of a washer and «to leave» it, impose increased requirements to a musculoskeletal system and a nervous system, the visual analyzer.

During the playing hockey heart rate can reach 200 and more beats per minute, maximum the ABP — 200 — 220 mm of mercury., a respiration rate — 60 — 70 cycles in min., lung ventilation of 150 l/min, the maximum oxygen consumption — 4,5 — 4,8 l/min; the oxygen debt increases to 16 l and more. Recovery of activity of functional systems after the game happens in 12 — 24 hours. At systematic playing hockey medical control (see) of the state of health of athletes is obligatory.

Injuries at playing hockey arise generally during power fight from collisions, falling, blows about a board of the hockey field, blows by a club, a washer, a ball. Damages of a knee joint are most often noted (see), is more rare talocrural (see. An ankle joint), stretchings and ruptures of the sumochno-copular device (see Sheaves), infringement and ruptures of meniscuses (see Meniscuses joint are possible), take place also of concussion (see the Concussion of the brain), fractures of a clavicle (see) etc. The sports protective equipment (a helmet, guards, elbow pieces, kneecaps, the goalkeeper has a mask, etc.), well prepared ice, high technique of single combat and discipline of players are of great importance for prevention of traumatism.

The main contraindications for playing hockey are diseases of cardiovascular system, a myopia, diseases of a musculoskeletal system, organic and functional frustration of a nervous system.

Children from 10 — 11 years are allowed to systematic hockey trainings in children's and youth sports schools.

Bibliography: M and r about N about in and 3. Page and M about-rozov and E. M. Sports traumatology, M., 1976; Mironova 3. Page and d river. An overstrain of a musculoskeletal system at athletes, M., 1982; F r and p to e To. Sports traumatology, the lane with it., M., 1981.

Century of II. Illarionov.