From Big Medical Encyclopedia


(chloride sodium waters) — mineral waters with the dissolved chloride sodium salts. Except the main component — sodium chloride — in them there is a chlorine at connection with calcium, magnesium, potassium, lithium, iron and other elements. X. - N of century treat the most widespread types of mineral waters and are one of the main to lay down. factors of many resorts and number of large bal-neotherapeutic institutions.

Depending on chemical structure allocate a little balneol. groups X. - N of century. Pure X. - N of century — water without specific properties and components. Their action is caused by the main ionic structure (chlorine and sodium) and the hl depends. obr. from the size of the general mineralization. Such waters, as a rule, have neutral reaction, are characterized by different temperature at the exit. Druskikinkay (see), Usolye, Kuyal-nik, etc. meet in the resorts of Staraya Russa (see). X. - N of century with specific properties include carbonic X. - N of century (see. Carbonic waters), located near Yerevan, in a river basin Hrazdan; hydrosulphuric X. - N of century (see. Sulfide waters), meeting in the resorts of Sochi -

Matsesta (see Sochi), Mendzhi, Talgi, Ust-Kachka (see), etc.; X. - the N of century containing iodine and bromine (see. Iodine-bromine waters)', X. - N of century, to-rykh are a part biologically and pharmacological active microelements — arsenic, strontium, cobalt (Upper Karmadon's waters, Nalachevskiye); highly mineralized nitric terms of Sakhalin, Kamchatka, Chukotka, Nalchik, etc.

X. - N of century are various mineralization. Underground X. - higher than 35 g/l call N of century with a mineralization by brines, X. - the N of century of the same mineralization who are in natural open reservoirs (lakes, estuaries) — a brine. From there are terms «brine bathtubs», «brine bathtubs».

X. - not higher than 15 g/l apply N of century with a mineralization to drinking treatment at the diseases of the digestive system which are followed by decrease in secretory and motor functions of a stomach or intestines. Such waters are available in the resorts of Druskininkai, Birstonas (see), Myrgorod (see), the Karma Don, etc. Many X. - N of century (Ayvazovskaya, Birute, Belarusian, Vitau-tas, Kuyalnik No. 6, Mirgorod, etc.) use for pouring in bottles. X. - N of century easily prepare out of resorts by dissolution of sodium chloride in sweet water.

In detail indications and contraindications to internal use of X. - N of century — see Mineralnye Vody.

Outwardly use waters with higher mineralization (but not higher than 80 g/l). Action of X. - N of century on an organism at their external use it is caused by hl. obr. degree of a mineralization, water temperature; at the same time the technique of use also matters. The unimpaired skin for inorganic salts is almost impenetrable. Salts only accumulate on a surface, forming a so-called salt raincoat, skin, in channels of sweat and sebaceous glands accumulate pleated, remain upon termination of the procedure there and have a local and reflex effect. Balneoprotsedura with X. - N of century cause morfofunktsionalny changes in cells, vessels and receptors of skin, increase heat exchange. Reflex they influence a functional condition of c. N of page, change the course of exchange processes, influence sympathoadrenal system, neuroendocrinal regulation, a tone of vessels, exert beneficial effect on function of cardiovascular system, possess the soothing, antiinflammatory, hyposensibilizing action. Extent of influence of X. - the N of century on an organism depends on their concentration and temperature, duration of the procedure that is confirmed by dynamics of indicators of nek-ry types of exchange, function of external respiration, condition of sympathoadrenal system, etc. Optimum concentration of X. - N of century for bathtubs — 20 — 40 g/l, optimum temperature — 35 — 37 °. Duration of the procedure makes 12 — 15 min. Bathtubs (see) appoint every other day or two days running with a break to the third; in total on a course 12 — 15 procedures. X. - N of century apply also to irrigations (a pilar part of the head, an oral cavity, a vagina), compresses (see the Compress), inhalations (see Inhalation), enteroclyses (see. Intestinal washings), use as a basis for preparation of radonic, pearl, carbonic and other types of bathtubs.

Indications: diseases of cardiovascular system (initial forms of atherosclerosis, hypertension of I and II stages, hypotension, initial stages of obliterating defeats of vessels of extremities, thrombophlebitis and posttrombofle-bitichesky syndrome), diseases of a musculoskeletal system of inflammatory, dystrophic, traumatic genesis, disease and effect of injuries of the central and peripheral nervous system, hron. inflammatory diseases of female generative organs, nek-ry skin diseases (psoriasis, neurodermatitis).

Contraindications — the general for balneotherapy (see), and also the increased reaction of skin to action of X. - N of century.

Bibliography: Questions balneo-and physical therapy, under the editorship of Yu. E. Danilov, etc., M., 1970; Ivanov V. V. and Nev-r and e in G. A. Classification of underground mineral waters, M., 1964; About l e f and -

renko V. T. Vodo-teplolecheniye, M., 1978; Syroyechkovskaya M. N. Balneotherapy, M., 1968. N. F. Sokolova.