HLOAZMA (chloasma; Greek chloazo to turn green; a synonym a uterine hloazma) — a hyperpegmentation of skin in the form of yellowish-brown spots.
In a pathogeny the disturbances of hormonal activity (a thyroid gland, adrenal glands, a hypophysis, gonads) which are observed during pregnancy (see), and also at women in a climacteric (see) or suffering from dysfunctions of ovaries (see) matter. In some cases emergence of a hlo-azma is connected with diseases of a liver, hypersensitivity of skin by a sunlight (see Photodermatoses).
At gistol. a research accumulation of grains of melanin (see) in cells of basal and acanthceous layers of epidermis and increase in quantity of melanophores in surface layers of a derma is noted (see the Melanosis).
Hloazma occurs, as a rule, at women. There are spots of yellowish-brown color of uneven contours, is more often on a face. The hloazma can be found in pregnant women also in mammary glands (peripapillary circles), the white line of a stomach, around a navel, on external genitals. In winter time and at elimination of pathogenetic factors of a hloazm can turn pale and disappear completely.
Hloazm should distinguish from freckles (see), melanodermas (see the Melanosis) and the secondary hyperpegmentations of skin developing on site inflammations of skin after long influence of mustard plasters, a number of cosmetics, etc. (see Dyschromias of skin).
Disappearance of a hloazma is promoted by correction of hormonal shifts (see Hormonal therapy), long reception of vitamins of group B, C, pantothenate of calcium, methionine, use of the peeling ointments (e.g., 1 — 2% of salicylic), 3 — 5% of hydrogen peroxide. In the cases which are not giving in to treatment massage by snow coal to - you or liquid nitrogen (see the Cryosurgery), and also a dermoabraziya is recommended (see. Cosmetic procedures). In summertime protection of face skin against influence of UV rays is shown.
Bibliography: Babayants R. S. and L about N-sh and to about in Yu. I. Frustration of a xanthopathy, page 74, M., 1978; L eg-
Peg A. V., S h i z and sh e To. Bunding I. The mechanism of endocrine control of melanin pigmintation, J. clin. Endocr., v. 14, p. 1463, 1954.