From Big Medical Encyclopedia

HISTORIOGRAPHY MEDICAL — the section of history of medicine and the general historiography studying history of formation and development of the history of medicine on the basis of the analysis and generalization of the published general historical and historical and medical researches. Under And. m understand also the review and the analysis of the historical and medical publications devoted to a certain historical era or a problem of medicine (e.g., a historiography of the Soviet health care, a nervosism in medical science and practice, etc.).

As well as history of medicine, And. m, being derivatives of certain public relations and ideology, reflects philosophical concepts and the methodological principles of scientific research inherent in this socioeconomic structure. So, And. m, based on dialektiko-materialistic methodology, it is capable to reveal and open true contents of historical and medical concepts and the main patterns of their development inherent in certain historical periods, in particular to show a ratio social and biol, began in the history of development of medicine and their interrelation with practice of health care that received reflection in works according to the theory and stories of medicine, health care. Contrary to it And. m, the bourgeois ideology which is based on theoretical postulates, usually svoystven (similar to history of medicine) subjectivistic, idealistic or formal and metaphysical approach to assessment and interpretation of the events and processes stated in historical and medical works which characterize development of medicine and a health system at certain stages of history human about-va.

Main objective And. the m makes the analysis and generalization of results of historical and medical researches. At the same time developments on And. m are carried out on narrower methodical and source study base, than historical and medical researches; sources of these developments are only the published scientific works allowing to reveal the main contents and the most important directions of development of historical and medical knowledge. Historical and medical researches, unlike And. m, along with studying of the published works, are based on historical and archive development, use of data of archeology and paleopathology, studying of works of the national epos and folklore, ethnographic, linguistic materials with attraction film, photo, phonodocuments, etc. (a so-called source study historical and medical).

Subject I. the m is history of formation and development of large theoretical problems of medicine and health care, napr, prevention, a nervosism, environmental control, etc.; separate industries of medicine or scientific medical disciplines, napr, surgeries, therapies, hygiene, military medicine, etc.; separate theories of medicine taking into account influence on their emergence and the subsequent development of these or those philosophical concepts.

Depending on problems of a historiographic research and its character it is possible to allocate three main types of works in the area I. m.

The first, most often found look combines historiographic researches with historical and medical work, a component (section) to-rogo they are. A typical example of such historiographic work is the review of literature on the studied question presented in the form of separate chapter (section) of the monograph or thesis of historical and medical contents. But such historiographic review can be also introduction to the scientific work covering any modern problem theoretical or a wedge, medicine i.e. to be a component of work which according to the contents is not the historical and medical work. At the same time only such reviews of literature which allow to reveal the main patterns which are the cornerstone of the studied question (problem) as a result of the historiographic analysis can be carried to historiographic researches and to define the major historical stages and the directions of its development.

The second type of works on And. m make the original, independent historiographic monograph researches or separately executed historiographic review entirely constructed on the historiographic analysis and critical analysis of the published sources characterizing development of the studied question. The purpose of such research — the directed historiographic development of a certain question for the benefit of its subsequent in-depth historical and medical study on wider methodical and source study base. An example of works on And. m of this look are «Sketches of a historiography of the Soviet health care» under the editorship of M. I. Barsukov (M., 1965), «The Russian medicine and physiology in works of the Moscow society of testers of the nature» of N. I. Grashchenkov (M., 1946).

The third type of works in the area I. the m combines complex historical and historiographic researches in which the historiographic method not only coexists with other methods of a historical and medical research, but also is (unlike other types of works on stories of medicine) in this case the leader. At the same time a historiographic part of such complex research is not allocated in the certain head (section) that is characteristic of the first type of works on And. the m, and penetrates all content (chapter or the section) of this research. A representative sample of this type of works on And. m — the problem historical and historiographic monograph, e.g. «Development of a public and medical thought in Russia in 60 — 70 years of the 19th century» A. P. Zhuka (M., 1963), «Sketches of history of development and use of hemotransfusion» of O. K. Gavrilov (L., 1968). To the same type of works on And. m can be carried problem collections of the scientific works combining the interconnected use of the historiographic analysis with other methods of a historical and medical research, e.g. «Sketches of history of the Russian public medicine (by century of territorial medicine)» under the editorship of P. I. Kalyyu (M., 1965).

And. the m leans not only on a source study, but also on the bibliography of a question (see. Bibliography medical ), however has essential differences from it. The bibliography provides only systematization of literature, its description on the basis of formal publishing signs, sometimes with the short summary (the annotated bibliographic indexes). Unlike it And. m it is designed to open and estimate contents of scientific works at their sets on this basis to reveal the main directions, on the Crimea there was an evolution of the theoretical concepts and views defining a state and the level of development of the theory and practice of medicine (health care) at various historical stages. At the same time the historiographic analysis of scientific works can also promote specification of their bibliographic description and classification, i.e. provides the most exact bibliographic characteristic of the works of historical and medical literature which were an object of a historiographic research.

For the benefit of bigger focus of studying of process of historical development of the studied question of medicine (health care) it is desirable that And. m in combination with the bibliography of the sources of literature which are taking up the matter preceded any historical medical to a research at a stage of its planning. Such approach allows to reveal, first, better degree of study of the matter and methodological full value of the researches which are earlier executed in this area and, secondly, gives the chance to better define the nodal points and the directions of a new research which are subject to more profound factual development and theoretical comprehension on the basis of laws of dialectic and historical materialism. Due to stated during the planning of scientific development of historical and medical work it is the most reasonable to make the bibliography of the studied question in the beginning and to reveal the published works which are subject to historiographic studying. Then make the historiographic analysis and the critical review of these sources of literature that allows to specify the main objectives, the directions and nodal points of the undertaken historical and medical research. Such preliminary historiographic development of the studied question allows to make the reasonable plan of the forthcoming scientific research of historical and medical character and to choose the methods of research which are most answering to its tasks.

See also Medicine, history of medicine .

Bibliography: Vida-Virski F. About the main problems of history of medicine, the lane with polsk., M., 1961, bibliogr.; A. S of St. George. A medical historiography and its place in a complex of medical sciences, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 5, page 73, 1974; Results and perspectives of researches on history of medicine, under the editorship of M. I. Barsukov, Chisinau, 1973; Sketches of a historiography of the Soviet health care, under the editorship of M. I. Barsukov, M., 1965; Modern methods in the history of medicine, ed. by E. Clarke, L., 1971.

A.S. Georgiyevsky.