HILL Archibald

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

HILL Archibald (Hill Archibald Vivian, 1886 — 1977) is the English physiologist and the biophysicist, the member London royal about-va (1918), the Nobel Prize laureate


After the termination in 1907. Cambridge un-that, worked in the same place, in physiological laboratory.

During World War I was a member scientific konsultativn oho committee of a military office. In 1919 returned to Cambridge to research work in physiological laboratory. In 1920 — 1923 professor of physiology Manchester un-that. In 1923 it is elected professor of college London un-that. From 1926 to 1951 professor London royal about-va, along with 1935 for 1945 his secretary. During World War II as the secretary Korolevsky about-va and the member of parliament directed work on preservation of scientific shots and development of cooperation of the scientific countries of the anti-Hitlerite coalition. Ob-va of support of science and education participated in the organization; in 1946 it was elected him the chairman, and in 1963 — the president. From 1955 to 1959 at the same time was the president of Sea biological association.

Main works And. Hilla are devoted to problems of thermodynamics and the mechanism of reduction of skeletal muscles. Together with Hartri (Hart-gay) four main phases of process of heat production of a muscle connected with the corresponding phases of its mechanical activity were opened for them. In 1926 it for the first time showed that carrying out nervous impulse is followed by increase in heat production of a nerve. The Nobel Prize is conferred (together with the biochemist O. Meyergof) for a cycle of works on thermodynamics of muscular contraction and its communication with metabolism of a muscle. A. Hill possesses also fundamental works in the field of the theory of excitement, physiology of movements and sport, a compressed-air disease (see). By it it is entered fiziol. the concept «oxygen debt» (see. Muscular work).

A. Hill was the honorary member of academies and the scientific countries about-in many.

Works: The mechanism of muscular contraction, Physiol. Rev., v. 2, p. 310, 1922; Muscular movement in man, factors governing1 speed and recovery from fatigue, N. Y. — L., 1927; Muscle work, the lane

with English, M. — L., 1929; Adventures in biophysics, Oxford, 1931 (the Russian lane, M. — L., 1935); Chemical wave transmission in nerve, Cambridge, 1932; Trails and trials in physiology, L., 1965; First and last experiments in muscle mechanics, Cambridge, 1970 (pyc. lane, M., 1972). B. I. Hodorov.