From Big Medical Encyclopedia

HIGH-RISE EQUIPMENT — the individual equipment of pilots and astronauts intended for protection against an adverse effect of a tenuous atmosphere.

Fig. 1. The compensating suit (an upper half) with a hermetic helmet: 1 — the microphone; 2 — the valve of an exhalation; 3 — a lifting glazing (illuminator); 4 — the socket of a helmet; 5 — a hose of supply of oxygen; 6 — a hose for connection of pressure under the valve of an exhalation; 7 — input of communication.
Fig. 2. The schematic diagram of the pressed-out action of the high-rise compensating suits (cross section): and — with round pneumocameras — with flat pneumocameras (are represented by fat lines); a cover of suits (double lines) during the filling of pneumocameras with oxygen thanks to the tensioner densely press out a body, compensating the diminished pressure of the environment (shooters showed the direction of pressure).

Oxygen masks, the high-rise compensating suits (fig. 1) belong to V. of page and space suits (see).

Century of page is applied together with the onboard or independent oxygen equipment (see. Oxygen and respiratory equipment , in aircraft). Depending on flight conditions (height, duration, the general scheme of life support systems and rescue etc.) various objects and V.'s sets of page are used.

Basic purpose of V. of page — to support in inhaled air the level of partial pressure of oxygen necessary for normal gas exchange in lungs.

Sufficient supply of an organism with oxygen in the conditions of the lowered barometric pressure by inhalation through a mask of the air enriched with oxygen or pure oxygen during the use of a mask is provided only with a pressure in a cabin corresponding to heights to 12 km (145 mm of mercury.). With more low barometric pressure around a body of the person the prepared atmosphere with the level of absolute pressure not less than 145 mm of mercury shall be created. (as it becomes in a space suit) or the oxygen given for breath shall come to lungs under excessive (in relation to kabinny) pressure. Breath under excessive pressure is serious load of cardiovascular and respiratory systems of an organism. Therefore for a possibility of breath under excessive pressure (more than 30 mm of mercury.) and prevention of inevitable at the same time functional frustration by means of the high-rise compensating suits on a body surface the external (compensating) counter-pressure, in size equal to excessive intra pulmonary pressure is created.

Fig. 3. A part of the high-rise compensating suit: 1 — a lacing; 2 — a cover of a suit; 3 — a band of the tensioner; 4 — contours of the pneumocamera. At decrease in external pressure of the pneumocamera are automatically filled with oxygen and, increasing in the diameter, pull a band which, in turn, pulls a cover of a suit, compensating the diminished pressure of the environment.

The High-rise Compensating Suit (HRCS) represents the overalls from the strong, a little extended air-permeable fabric fitting a body and extremities of the pilot rather tightly. External pressure in suits is created mechanically by means of the special tensioner with round (fig. 2, a) or flat áiú bladders (fig. 2,6). In nek-ry designs the combination of flat cameras with the tensioner is applied. The tensioner (fig. 3) with the áiú bladders which are built in in it being the integral component of VKK is located along hands, a trunk and legs, and flat cameras are placed under a cover. At supply of oxygen in cameras their volume increases, fabric of a suit stretches, creating thereby pressure upon a body. Such way of creation of pressure demands careful selection of the size of a suit and its individual adjustment for a figure for what on a suit the special lacing is provided.

VKK complete with oxygen masks are applied in flights up to the heights of 16 — 18 km (excessive pressure in respiratory system does not exceed 70 — 75 mm of mercury.), since due to the lack of counter-pressure in a neck, ears and especially eyes such size is extremely transferable within several minutes. At the heights more than 18 km the high-rise compensating suits complete with the pressure helmets which are completely isolating the head from the surrounding atmosphere are applied. Breathing oxygen moves under the corresponding pressure directly in a cavity of a helmet, providing its ventilation and necessary pressure upon all surface of the head. Sealing of a helmet in a neck is made by a rubber cuff. To prevention of shift of a helmet up during creation in it excessive pressure the special system of its fastening is applied to VKK. At the heights more than 20 km for the prevention of development of high-rise fabric emphysema (see. Compressed-air disease ) the set of a suit with the compensating socks and gloves is used.

Century of page is a component of protective equipment and flight clothes of the pilot. Therefore along with necessary high-rise characteristics (height of use, time of protective action) it shall answer defined a gigabyte. and to operational requirements to be combined with other elements of equipment, clothes, recovery aids and a workplace, not to complicate performance of working operations in usual conditions of flight and in flight in the depressurized cabin, not to worsen conditions of heat exchange of an organism.

In addition to V.'s improvement by the village, among the actions directed to protection of flight personnel against harmful effects of height, essential value has creation of hermetic cabins (see. Cabins of aircraft ).

See also Height , Flights .

Bibliography: Lavnikov A. A. Fundamentals of air and space medicine, M., 1975, bibliogr.; Fundamentals of bioastronautics and medicine, under the editorship of O. G. Gazenko and M. Calvin, t. 1 — 3, M., 1975, bibliogr.; At mansk and y S. P. Snaryazheniye of the pilot and the astronaut, M. of 1967.

L. G. Golovkin.