HIERARCHICAL SYSTEM (structure) — the system consisting of family of consistently subordinated subsystems; examples And. pages are economic, biological systems (e.g., a human body) etc. And. page call also multi-purpose since various elements (subsystems) have, as a rule, the purposes and tasks. Some of these subsystems are making decisions (managing or decisive) elements, and separate control elements can submit to other control elements in turn.
Important concept I. the page is a concept of level (the top level, intermediate levels, the lower level). Each level in And. the page is characterized by the language of the description of elements (system of concepts). So, in physics distinguish molecular level, level of interatomic interactions etc. In economy it is possible to allocate the level of economy in general, industry level; level of the enterprises. In an organism — the level of bodies, fabrics (body), cellular level etc., and allocation of levels in And. the page in many respects is defined by the point of view of researchers. Descriptions of elements I. pages at the different levels shall be coordinated in the sense that the task of characteristics of elements of the lower levels defines characteristics of elements of top levels And. page. As a rule, to more high level there corresponds more «aggregated» (enlarged) description And. page. It is possible to tell that to the movement from top to down (from top levels to lower) there corresponds more detailed description of system, and to the movement from below up — deeper understanding of system in general (its purposes, tasks, interrelation of subsystems).
Management in And. the page is also carried out by the hierarchical principle. V I. the page of the decentralized management control elements act as «coordinators» of the subordinated subsystems, coordinating their activity for the benefit of the purposes of the highest levels. V I. the village of the centralized management control elements plan activity of subsystems on the basis of information on a condition of the subordinated elements and tasks (plans) received «from above» obtained «from below» from decisive elements of more high level. See also Biological system , Management .
V. N. Burkov.