HIBERNATATION

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

HIBERNATATION (Latin. hibernatio) — a condition of catalepsy, in a cut many animals since fall prior to the beginning of spring fall. 3. page was evolutionarily arisen adaptation to experience of unfavorable conditions of the environment in the autumn and winter period (low temperature, a winter lack of fodder, etc.). The animals reserving food for the winter (rodents and some insects as, e.g., bees), do not fall into hibernation. 3. the page is observed at the animals living in sowing. and midlatitudes, at the majority of species of land and water protozoa and invertebrates (worms, mollusks, cancroid, arachnoid and insects), at poikilothermic vertebrata (fishes, amphibiouses and reptiles), at some mammals (bears, gophers, groundhogs, chipmunks, jerboas, son, hamsters, hedgehogs and bats), and also some bird species (martins and goatsuckers). During hibernation stability of animals to a nek-eye to bacterial and protozoan diseases and to effect of poisons and drugs sharply increases.

Before approach 3. villages animals hide in shelters — on a bottom of reservoirs, to the soil and bark of trees, and spend to deep holes or caves where they fall into catalepsy in such state several months. At the same time all processes happening in an organism are sharply slowed down, and the body temperature of animals or is equal to ambient temperature, or exceeds it only a little. At a number of the mammals falling in 3. the page, body temperature in an active state fluctuates in, limits 34 — 38 °; in an experiment it managed to be lowered for short term to — 5 ° — 7 °. Due to fall of temperature of a body there is a sharp delay of processes of breath, blood circulation and a metabolism allowing to support life activity of an organism at the expense of reserves of nutrients (fat and a glycogen) which are saved up since fall.

Activity of the animals falling in 3. the page, has seasonal nature. So, distribution by mosquitoes and mites of bacterial, viral and protozoan infections (a tularemia, the Japanese encephalitis, encephalomyelitis, a tick-borne encephalitis, malaria, a piroplasmosis, etc.) is strictly dated for the period of their activity. In the same way infection of mammals and people with plague from zimospyashchy rodents (groundhogs and gophers) is possible only during the spring and summer period. 3. page of keepers of an infection and its carriers (rodents, fleas, mosquitoes and mites), promoting long preservation in their organism of an infestant, is one of the conditions promoting emergence and preservation of the centers of some zoonoz (see) and antropozoonoz. Actions for fight against keepers and carriers of an infection (rodents, fleas, mosquitoes and mites) or for cultivation and protection of the types exterminating them (e.g., small fishes-gambuzy or bats eating larvae and adult mosquitoes) are made taking into account these features of animals.

Reproduction of similarity 3. the page at the mammals who are not falling into hibernation is closely connected with development of a problem artificial 3. page — the hibernation applied in medical practice (see. Hibernation artificial ).

N. I. Kalabukhov.

Яндекс.Метрика