From Big Medical Encyclopedia


the toda of problem solving based on the intuitive, leaning on previous experience logical conclusions.

AA. m usually use in the tasks connected with consideration of very large number of options. Limiting search, these methods allow to reduce considerably time demanded for the solution of a task. However their use usually does not guarantee the best decision.

In the mathematician E. m are opposed to methods, for to-rykh there are strict proofs of their successful use at the solution of a certain circle of tasks. For E. there is no m of such strict proofs, and use E. the m is proved by the fact of the successful solution of many tasks, and separate failures are considered as admissible. In other fields of science, including medicine, AA. m are opposed to so-called regular methods, for to-rykh a certain action program is adopted. Unlike them 3. m set only the general directions, restrictions and schemes by search of the decision, leaving great opportunities for works of the researcher. The computer programs based preferential on E. m, received the name of heuristic programs, and the direction, in Krom use heuristic programs, began to call heuristic programming.

In medical practice doctors are often forced to make decisions, relying on the experience and an intuition, i.e. resorting to heuristic metodakhm. These methods apply in systems of machine diagnosis (see Diagnosis machine) and keeping tracks of by the patient, and also at the solution of various tasks demanding consideration of a large number of options. In a crust, time there are expert systems of decision-making (e.g., the «person — the car» system), in to-rykh along with strict methods are widely used by E. m. These methods apply also in systems of artificial intelligence (see. Artificial intelligence).

Bibliography: D is full. How to solve

a problem, the lane with English, M., 1961; it, Mathematics and plausible reasonings, the lane with English, M., 1975; Building expert systems, ed. by F. Hayes-Roth a. o., L. a. o., 1983. A. Ya. Chervonenkis.