HESS Walter (Hess Walter Rudolf, 1881 — 1973) — the Swiss physiologist, zasl. professor (1951), Nobel Prize laureate (1949).
Studied medicine in high fur boots of Switzerland and Germany. Since 1906 the doctor of medicine.
In 1913 — 1917 taught physiology on a medical f-takh in Bonn and Zurich. From 1917 to 1951 professor and director Fiziologicheskogo in-that Zurich un-that.
Scientific works of V. Hess are devoted to questions of physiology of blood circulation, breath and a nervous system. Its works in the field of physiology of c. N of page were concentrated generally on studying of functional features of various structures of an average and diencephalon. It described the mechanism of influence of a diencephalon on activity of internals. For these works it was conferred the Nobel Prize.
V. Hess developed the method of implanted electrodes allowing to study functions of subcrustal structures of a brain (1924). Implanting electrodes in various departments of a diencephalon and sending through them impulses of electric current, it caused in animals motor reactions, various emotional states (fear, rage, aggression, etc.), and also a condition of a dream. On the basis of it it put forward idea of existence of the functional centers of nervous control (see the Centers of a nervous system).
V. Hess is the author of the original theory of a dream (see), according to a cut there is a center of a dream located in a hypothalamus.
B. Hess there was the member of the German academy of scientists «Leo-on an ice floe».
Works: Beitrage zur Physiologie des Hirn-stammes, T. 1 — 3, Lpz., 1932 — 1956; Hypothalamus und die Zentren des autonomen Nervensystems, Physiol. Arch. Psychiat., Bd 104, S. 548, 1935 — 1936; Das Zwischen-hirn, Syndrome, Lokalisationen, Funktio-nen, Basel, 1949; The functional organization of the diencephalon, N. Yfe — L., 1957; The biology of mind, Chicago — L., 1964; Hypothalamus und Thalamus, Experimental — Dokumente, Stuttgart, 1968.
Bibliography: Hassler R.
Walter Rudolf Hess zum achtzigsten Geburtstag, Dtsch. med. Wschr., S. 688, 1961; Stevenson L. G. Nobel Prize Winners in medicine and physiology, 1901 — 1950, p. 260, N. Y., 1953. V. A. Makarov.