From Big Medical Encyclopedia

HEMOPHTHALMIA (grech, haima blood + ophthalmos of eyes) — a vitreous hemorrhage from vessels of a retina or a vascular path of an eye.

Traumatic G. results from the perforating or contusional injuries of an eye, spontaneous G. arises at a periphlebitis of a retina, hemorrhagic glaucoma, fibrinferment of the central vein of a retina, a diabetic retinopathy, a retinopathy at hemorrhagic diathesis, etc. At sick G. there can occur total loss of sight with lack of a reflex of an eyeground.

The essence of process consists in treatment of a vitreous the blood which streamed in a cavity of an eye. The hemosiderin which is formed at disintegration of hemoglobin toxic affects a retina.

At a research by method of side lighting or by method of biomicroscopy behind a crystalline lens find the reddish-yellow granular mass of blood, edges are impregnated by a vitreous. According to E. Fuchs, already on the third, day begins hemolysis of blood, at the same time erythrocytes lose hemoglobin, become colourless and disappear; hemoglobin drops out in the form of kernels. This process can proceed within many weeks of a plant louse of months.

In the course of a rassasyvaniye of blood phagocytes absorb erythrocytes and kernels of hemoglobin.

Speed of a rassasyvaniye depends on reactivity of an organism and age of the patient: at children's and youthful age blood resolves quicker. Quite often blood will be organized, the connective tissue tyazh, shvarta soldered to a retina are formed. The «proliferating retinitis» arising at the same time can be the cause of amotio of a retina.

In opportunities perhaps considerable rassasyvaniye of blood and, despite the irreversible degenerative changes connected with disturbance of chemism and normal structure of a vitreous various extent of recovery of sight is possible.

Treatment it is carried out taking into account etiol. factors. In the first days rest, a binocular bandage is shown to all patients. Inside appoint 10% solution of calcium chloride, phthiocol, Rutinum, citrin. In 10 — 12 days appoint drugs of iodine inside, sodium chloride, glucose with ascorbic to - that intravenously, hemotransfusions (on 100 ml repeatedly every 10 days), fabric therapy by V. P. Filatov's method. Locally apply instillations of solutions of dionine, enter oxygen, solutions of a lidaza, chymotrypsin under a conjunctiva, on an eyeglobe — an electrophoresis with potassium iodide, papain. In the absence of effect in certain cases recommend suction of a vitreous.

Excision shvart in a vitreous by means of a vitreofag (the special device allowing to destroy shvarta with simultaneous removal from a cavity of an eye of the excised substrate) is sometimes shown.

Bibliography: Lebekhov P. I. Perforated wounds of eyes, L., 1974, bibliogr;; The multivolume guide to eye diseases, under the editorship of V. N. Arkhangelsky, t. 2, page 535, M., 1960; N e d d e n, Results of 300 suctions of a vitreous, Arkh. oftalm., t. 3, p. 4, page 569, 1927; Pole B. L. Povrezhdeniya of an organ of sight, L., 1972, bibliogr.; Benson Wt. E. a. S r and 1 t e r H. F. Vitreous hemorrhage, Surv. Ophthal., v. 15, p. 297, 1971; R eg-n an u 1 t F. R. Vitreous hemorrhage, Arcty. Ophthal., v. 83, p. 458, 1970.

H. K. Ivanov.