HEALTH PROTECTION OF CHILDREN AND TEENAGERS — a complex of the governmental and public social and economic and medical activities directed to protection and strengthening of health of children and teenagers.
The program of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union of one of the major put forward a task «... to provide education, since the earliest children's age, physically strong younger generation with harmonious development of physical and spiritual powers» (the CPSU in resolutions and decisions of congresses, conferences and plenums of the Central Committee, prod. 8, t. 8, page 269). The important role in it belongs to child care facilities and teenage offices of policlinics, in to-rykh medical overseeing by children is carried out by doctors and nurses.
In pre-revolutionary Russia at the end of 19 century in gymnasiums was entered a position of the school doctor, treatment of pupils and personnel of educational institutions, and also control of observance a gigabyte belonged to duties to-rogo. conditions of training and physical training of pupils. In a number of the large cities of Russia there were organizations of doctors of city schools, the main duty to-rykh was implementation of supervision for a dignity. a condition of the educational institutions and taking a step directed to the prevention of emergence and distribution inf. diseases.
Right after a fulfillment of Great October socialist revolution the Soviet state took the responsibility for health protection of children and teenagers. It was adopted a number of the laws providing development of network of nurseries to lay down. - professional, institutions. Decrees of the Soviet government proclaimed general primary free education, free food of children aged up to 15 years is entered, work of children up to 14 years is prohibited and duration of the working day of teenagers to 4 hours a day with preservation of the full salary is limited. The majority of decrees was signed by V. I. Lenin (see. Legislation on health care , Health care ). A lot of work in the field of health protection of children was carried out (see. Protection of motherhood and childhood ).
At the end of 1917 at the Commissariat on national education for overseeing the medical and sanitary condition of schools and behind physical and intellectual development of children creates the Main school and sanitary council with executive body — department of school sanitation and hygiene, the management the Crimea was assigned on V. M. Bonch-Bruyevich (Velichkin). The department dealt with issues of medical overseeing by children 3 years, implementations of physical culture, instilling a dignity are more senior. - a gigabyte. skills to school students. This department in 1918 was transferred to Narkomzdrav of RSFSR (in connection with education of the last) and renamed into department of health protection of children and teenagers.
In 1921 the provision of SNK signed by V. I. Lenin about health protection of children and teenagers is enacted. For implementation of tasks of O. of WL and the item the children's preventive out-patient clinics later transformed to children's out-patient clinics, and then to children's policlinics were created; in 1924 positions of doctors on health protection of teenagers were founded, the network of professional consultations is developed.
The organization of security service of health of younger generation developed not only in to lay down. - professional, the direction, but also sanitary and epidemiologic. For fight with inf. incidence in Narkomzdrava of RSFSR creates a dignity. - epid, section; in the decree of SNK RSFSR issued in 1922 «About sanitary bodies of the Republic» SES was imputed a duty to hold events for health protection of children. The developed construction of schools and child care facilities demanded introduction in 1935 of a position of gossaninspek-tor on school hygiene as a part of the State sanitary inspection.
Problems of health care of improvement of children and teenagers were defined by the All-Russian meeting of workers of health protection of children and teenagers in March, 1936. Nurseries to lay down. - professional, out-patient clinics were transformed to children's policlinics, in 1938 the provision on work of the pediatrician in teaching and educational institutions is approved, on Krom the duty of the doctor included profound studying of the state of health of pupils of schools and pupils of kindergartens, holding recreational actions and implementation a dignity. control of the maintenance of schools and preschool institutions.
In the organization and formation of system O. of WL and the item the big role was played by prominent scientists and doctors — D. D. Bekaryukov (see), M. D. Bolshakova, L. N. Zaglukhinskaya, P. M. Ivanovsky, A. A. Kisel, M. I. Korsunskaya, N. V. Manannikova, V. I. Molchanov, A.-V. Moljkov, O. D. Sokolova-Ponomarev, G. N. Speransky, M. A. Shustova, etc.
In difficult years of the Great Patriotic War the Communist Party and the Soviet government constantly showed care of children.
In post-war years expansion of network of child care and teenage facilities, further upgrading of medical aid continued. By the end of the first post-war five-years period (1946 — 1950) number of nurseries to lay down. - professional, institutions exceeded pre-war level.
The resolutions of the Communist Party and the Soviet government providing the actions for improvement of work of schools, preschool institutions and educational institutions of system of vocational training which are strictly regulating study, work, rest, education and full development of children and teenagers are taken for life time of our state. The right for education and health protection of children is set by the Constitution of the USSR and Bases of the legislation of USSR and federal republics about health care (see. Communist Party of the Soviet Union ).
New manifestation of care about health of children and teenagers was the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About measures for strengthening of the state help to the families having children» (1981), published soon after completion of work of the XXVI congress of the CPSU. In the eleventh and twelfth five-years periods every possible development of network of kindergartens and a day nursery, schools and groups with prolonged in the afternoon, summer camps and other child care facilities will be provided.
Health protection of children
Progress of social and economic development of the USSR gave the chance to aim huge amounts of money at the development of national education and health care, and first of all at health protection of women and children. The state incurs up to 80% of expenses on keeping of children in teaching and educational institutions.
In the USSR the network of children's sanatoria is created (see. Sanatorium, sanatorium children's ), and also sanatoria, rest houses and boarding houses for parents with children, in to-rykh the St. 1,5 million school students annually is treated and has a rest. Besides, annually more than 12 million school students have a rest in summer camps (see), apprx. 20 million school students participates in various sports competitions, apprx. 2 million also several tens of thousands — at sports and technical schools are engaged in children's and youth sports schools. At the place of residence of children only for 1976 — 1979 it is constructed apprx. 11 thousand sports grounds, more than 1 thousand sports clubs and apprx. 9 thousand sports groups are created.
Necessary conditions for preservation and promotion of health and for a gigabyte are provided to the children who are on education in child care facilities and the student at schools. education. Educational and labor load, and also the approximate mode of occupations of children * are defined in coordination with M3 of the USSR. Control of health protection of children and holding recreational actions in child care facilities and schools carry out bodies and healthcare institutions together with bodies and institutions of national education with the assistance of public organizations.
The preventive orientation — the leading principle of the Soviet health care — found the greatest reflection in the organization of medical aid to children. Paramount value has active involvement of workers to actions of bodies of health care that is distinctive feature of system O. of WL and the item.
In the resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and Council of ministers of the USSR «About measures for further improvement of national health care» (1977) specific measures of increase in level of medical aid to children and teenagers are planned.
The leading place in the organization of medical aid to children is taken by policlinics, to-rye hold events for early identification and timely treatment of sick children. Rendering the polyclinic help to children in the USSR is constructed on system of the uniform pediatrician, edges are provided by continuous medical overseeing by each child up to 14 years inclusive. The number of children's policlinics increases, improves their equipment of diagnostic every year and to lay down. the equipment, conducts construction of large policlinics on 600 — 800 visits per shift. For consultations and treatment specialists of a narrow profile are attracted. The philosophy of work of children's policlinics — continuous medical examination of the children's population of the serviced territory. Medical aid to children in preschool institutions is carried out in the cities by children's policlinics, in rural areas — regional and local-tsami at the rate of 250 children of babyhood or 700 children of preschool age on one pediatrician in the cities and respectively 350 and 1000 children — in rural areas. Children's policlinics provide medical aid to school students (on one doctor of 2500 pupils). At nek-ry schools physiotherapeutic, dental and logopedic surgeries are developed.
Management of rendering medical aid in preschool institutions and schools is carried out by school and preschool departments of children's policlinics which will be organized in policlinics where more than 9 doctors work at schools and preschool institutions; their main objective is the organization to lay down. - professional, and a dignity. - a gigabyte. the actions promoting preservation and promotion of health, improvement of physical development, successful training and education of children. Overseeing with the state of health of children in day nursery gardens and schools by performing profound medical examinations with participation of specialists of a different profile and the subsequent dispensary observation for children is for this purpose provided, at to-rykh deviations in the state of health are revealed; control of physical training and prevention of disturbances of a musculoskeletal system at children; implementation in life of school and preschool institutions a gigabyte. recommendations about the mode of studies and control for a dignity. - a gigabyte. conditions; organization of the rational mode and good nutrition; holding anti-epidemic actions; rendering the advisory help to school students of the senior classes in questions of choice of profession; carrying out dignity. - a gleam. works among pupils, teachers and parents, including problems of sex education.
The important place in activity of school and preschool departments of policlinics is allocated to questions medical examinations (see), succession in work, especially in overseeing by patients and the weakened children, the organization of improvement of children in summer camps, sanatoria, country dachas of child care facilities. Departments are the methodical centers that allows to organize correctly, to systematically control and direct work of doctors of schools and child care facilities, local pediatricians, specialists doctors of policlinic, to analyze more deeply and to rationally plan actions for further improvement of quality of medical aid and recreational work, to carry out professional development of pediatricians of the district, to study and extend the best practices of their activity.
Health protection of teenagers
Health protection of teenagers in the USSR is one of the major national objectives. Medical aid to teenagers (from 15 to 17 years inclusive) is rendered by policlinics for adults and network of special teenage offices of the policlinics and offices organized as a part of MSCh (1 doctor and 1 nurse on 1500 teenagers and on medical assistant's health centers 1 paramedic on 500 teenagers). The number of teenage offices annually increases, improves their completeness medical shots. In a number of the cities special therapeutic departments for teenagers are organized. During winter and summer vacation most institutions of rest is provided to youth; besides, St. 2 million seniors annually strengthen the health in sports, tourist camps, in camps of work and rest and other institutions.
The main objectives medical - a dignity. providing teenagers is systematic overseeing their health and physical development (performing annual profound medical examinations), the organization and carrying out timely to lay down. - the prof. of actions for strengthening of their health. Routine medical examinations allow to provide dynamic overseeing with the state of health of teenagers.
The urgent direction in medicine — the prof. orientation of teenagers; it provides recommendations about future work taking into account funkts, opportunities of the teenager. The teenage doctor provides the systematic accounting of the working teenagers, pupils of the technical training college studying the senior classes of schools at the age of 15 — 17 years inclusive, students of technical schools and schools, carries out annual periodic medical examinations of teenagers of the district; he carries out communication with specialized departments, clinics, SES, directors of schools, public organizations concerning health protection and work of teenagers, takes part in work on definition of the prof. of suitability of the working teenagers and the prof. of orientation of pupils of 8 — 10 classes of schools, studies conditions and the mode of work, study and life of teenagers on production, in educational institutions, in hostels and at home for the purpose of development of offers on their improvement.
Special attention is paid on studying and the analysis of the general incidence and incidence with temporary disability; carrying out medical examination and the accounting of efficiency to lay down. - the prof. of actions; selection of patients on a dignity. - hens. treatment, dietary food; transfer of the teenager into other work etc. Medical control of the teenagers playing physical culture and sports is exercised. Doctors of a teenage office render medical aid by the pupil of technical training college, technical schools and schools living in hostels.
Specialized help to teenagers is given by doctors of the corresponding profile, and medical aid at home — district doctors of policlinics.
Sanitary inspection behind child care and teenage facilities. The main objectives of work of SES in the field of hygiene of children and teenagers are: implementation behind child care and teenage facilities precautionary and current sanitary inspection (see) for the purpose of improvement of conditions of education and training of children, working conditions, life and study of teenagers; analysis dignity. conditions of institutions for children and teenagers; development of recreational actions on the basis acting a dignity. - a gigabyte. and dignity. - epid, rules and norms.
The doctor of SES takes part in the solution of a question of providing the land plots under building of child care and teenage facilities; design, construction, reconstruction and commissioning which are again built, capitally converted and the reconstructed institutions; production of clothes, footwear and other objects of children's use, school and children's furniture, educational visual aids, children's toys and equipment for child care and teenage facilities.
The important section of work on O. of WL and the item also are: development of drafts of decisions of party and Soviet bodies and drafts of orders of bodies of health care concerning health protection of children and teenagers; drawing up annual and long-term plans of preventive and sanitary and recreational actions for further improvement dignity. conditions of child care and teenage facilities of the serviced territory; carrying out together with bodies of health care, about-vom Red the Cross and Red Crescent, bodies of national education and other public organizations of reviews a dignity. states, the mode of education, food, physical training, etc. in institutions for children and teenagers; participation in promotion gigabyte. knowledge among parents, pupils and personnel of child care and teenage facilities. This work is carried out by hl. obr. the doctors on hygiene of children and teenagers of SES working in close contact with doctors of teenage offices and children's policlinics. Doctors of teenage offices pay special attention to the current dignity. supervision of the mode and conditions of studies and work of teenagers on production, in school, technical school, the hostel, control of food, holding actions for fight against helminths and preventive inoculations, a dignity. - a gleam. activity.
The main directions of scientific research on health protection of children and teenagers
help to solve Pressing problems of health protection of children and teenagers scientific in-you pediatric and a gigabyte. a profile (see. Research institutes ) and departments of pediatrics of medical in-t and in-t of improvement of doctors. The Orders of Lenin and awards of the Labour Red Banner of in-t of pediatrics of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, performing functions of head scientific institution on this problem, plays a large role in development of scientific and methodical and organizational issues.
Research teams study features of development of a children's organism, develop methods of prevention and treatment of various diseases, solve problems of improvement of organizational forms of rendering the polyclinic and stationary help to children, is engaged in studying of problems of scheduled maintenance with the healthy child, his food, physical training, a hardening, adaptation, development of higher nervous activity and so forth (see. Pediatrics ).
In the solution of nation-wide tasks of health protection of children and teenagers the big role belongs a gigabyte. to science, creation and development a cut became possible only after Great October socialist revolution. Head establishment on this problem is Research the in-t of hygiene of children and teenagers, created in Moscow in 1959. Hygienists solve problems of preventive medicine, the main objectives a cut are studying and development specific a gigabyte. recommendations about creation of optimal conditions of training and education of younger generation, preservation and strengthening of his health, ensuring favorable and harmonious development of a children's organism. A significant amount of researches is devoted to studying of physical development of children and teenagers from the point of view of process of acceleration, in to-rykh the interrelation of physical development with the state of health, with incidence, with influence of social and genetic factors is emphasized, causes and effects of acceleration of growth and development of a children's organism reveal (see. Acceleration , Physical development ).
Research establishments gigabyte. a profile are engaged in studying of interaction of the developing organism and environmental factors, development a gigabyte. the standards promoting successful formation and development of a children's and teenage organism and strengthening of health of younger generation (see. Hygiene of children and teenagers ).
The health care of the USSR and other socialist countries passed to new, higher stage of prevention, the purpose to-rogo is the prevention of deviations from optimum level of development morfol. and funkts, properties of the growing organism.
The achieved success in health protection of children and teenagers became possible in the conditions of a socialist system where care of children is one of the most important functions of the state.
Bibliography: Clinic of diseases, physiology and hygiene at teenage age, under the editorship of G. N. Serdyukovskaya, etc., page 451, M., 1978; Minkh A. A. and Serdyukovskayag. N. Sotsialnogigiyenicheskiye of a problem of education of younger generation, in book: Society and health of the person, page 266, M., 1973; Serdyukovskaya G. N. Hygiene of the childhood — the most important link of protection and strengthening of health of children, in book: Health protection of children, century 7, page 3, M., 1979; 60 years of the Soviet health care, glavn. red, B. V. Petrovsky, page 121, etc., M., 1977.
G. N. Serdyukovskaya.