From Big Medical Encyclopedia

Distinguish health of the population and health of an individual.

Health of the population is considered by most of researchers as a concept statistical and it is rather fully characterized by a complex of demographic indicators — birth rate (see), mortality (see), child mortality (see), level physical development (see), incidence (see), average life expectancy, and also special social biol. researches. At the same time it is considered that demographic indicators are in certain dependence on living conditions of the studied collectives: character of the environment, working conditions, its intensity, duration of the working day, size of the real wage, security with food stuffs, clothes and housing, dignity. conditions of the territory, and also from the level of development of health care.

Concept «health of an individual» is not precisely determined that is connected with the big width of individual fluctuations of the major vital signs of an organism, and also with variety of the factors influencing on 3. person. At the same time the modern science did not establish the major factors defining a state 3 yet. individual. In it the reason of numerous attempts to formulate the most general definition of the concept «health».

Influence of social factor on 3. the person it is exclusively big. Quite often social moments can make big impact on a current biol, processes. Not without reason in a preamble of the charter of WHO it is written down: «Health is a condition of full physical, spiritual and social wellbeing, and not just absence of diseases or physical defects». However this definition to a nek-swarm of degree is disputable. First, the concept «full social wellbeing» is very wide and depends not only on individual views, but also on the created social relations in the specific country, and secondly, social full value of the person is not always defined by his biological state.

Some researchers enter the concept «absolute health», a cut they consider as the ideal, not existing in actual practice condition of an organism serving as a peculiar reference point similar to that as in physics the concepts «uniform rectilinear motion», «absolutely black body» are accepted. Such model creates conditions for profound studying of a problem of health of an individual. But as this model is abstract, in applied medicine it cannot be used. At the same time certain criteria or indicators on the basis of which the medicine, especially at medical examination, could resolve an issue of a state 3 are necessary. specific individual.

Both for theoretical, and for applied medicine it is extremely important to define the concept «practical health» or «norm», deviations from which borders can be considered a disease, pathology. Some authors consider that «norm» cannot be defined precisely as each person represents «aberration» [R. Williams] or because «all people are any disabled people, and all their wellbeing keeps on huge network of hospitals and hospitals» [P. Ramsay]. Other researchers too widely define the concept «norms» that does not cause an objection with philosophical and biol, the points of view, but use of definition in applied medicine complicates. So, e.g., V. Petlenko writes: «The norm is a biological optimum of live system, that is it represents an interval of optimum performance of live system. This interval has mobile borders within which optimum communication with Wednesday, and also coherence of all functions of an organism» (remains see. Norm ). However both in practical, and in theoretical medicine it is necessary to proceed from average idea of norm. But such approach assumes a certain degree of subjectivity, and the norm established in such way cannot be a constant for a long time; it shall go deep and be specified in connection with the latest developments medical and biol, sciences. So, the researches of biorhythms conducted in the 70th 20 century showed that even for days a row important fiziol, indicators (e.g., quantity of thrombocytes, leukocytes, etc.) it is subject to so considerable fluctuations that they can mask displays of pathology. Influence seasonal and meteorol, factors is not less essential. For bodies, «rigidly programmed» within cyclic activity, napr, for heart, definition of many indicators, in particular criteria of metabolism, shall be carried out in relation to phases of this cycle. Therefore in process of expansion medical and biol, knowledge the concept «norm» is specified.

Though 3. represents the state opposite to a disease, it has no clear boundary since there are various transient states. 3. does not exclude existence in an organism of yet not shown disease-producing beginning or subjective fluctuations in health of the person. In this regard there was a concept «almost healthy person», at to-rogo the aberrations which are observed in an organism do not affect health and do not affect working capacity. At the same time lack of objective manifestations of disturbance 3. does not point out lack of disease state since an overstrain of protective and adaptive mechanisms, in itself without breaking 3., can lead to developing of a disease at impact on an organism of extraordinary irritants. Disorders of adaptation of an organism to constantly changing environmental conditions are transient states between 3. and disease (see).

Thus, state 3. it can be objectively established only on set of many parameters: anthropometrical, wedge., fiziol., biochemical, the indicators defined taking into account sexual and age factors, and also social, climatic, geographical and meteorol. conditions. Apparently, in the most general terms it is possible to define 3. an individual as the natural state of an organism which is characterized by its full steadiness with the biosphere and lack of any expressed painful changes.

Scientific organization of protection 3. individuals and groups of people shall be based on prevention, in particular on increase in protective properties of a human body, on strengthening of heritable resistance to influence of harmful factors, and also on creation of the conditions warning a possibility of contact of the person with various pathogenic irritants. Among preventive actions one of the main places borrows environmental control (see).

The Soviet health care aims to develop, keep and strengthen 3 in every possible way. person. In the Bases of the legislation of USSR and federal republics about health care accepted by the Supreme Council of the USSR on December 19, 1969 it is told: «Health protection of the people — one of the most important problems of the Soviet state... Public health care — an obligation of all public authorities and public organizations... Citizens of the USSR shall make thrifty use of the health and health of other members of society». The Communist Party of the Soviet Union attaches exclusively great value to protection 3. Soviet people. In the report of the Central Committee of the CPSU it is told to the XXV congress of the CPSU: «Among social tasks there is no care about health of the Soviet people more important, than».

The new Constitution of the USSR (1977) mentions bases of life of each person - it is the right for work, for rest, for health protection, for material security in old age, in case of a disease, on the dwelling, etc.

For the first time in the history of mankind the Constitution of the USSR guarantees to the Soviet people the right to health protection. This right is provided with the free qualified medical aid rendered by State Healthcare Institutions; expansion of network of institutions for treatment and strengthening of health of citizens; development and improvement of the accident prevention and production sanitation; holding broad preventive actions; measures for improvement of the environment, preservation in purity of air and water; special care about health of younger generation, including prohibition of the child labor which is not connected with training and labor education; special safety arrangements and health of women; expansion of the scientific research directed to the prevention and decrease in incidence on providing long active life of citizens.

Bibliography: Ado A. D. and Tsaregorodtsev G. I. Fight of materialism and idealism in the doctrine about health and a disease of the person, M., 1970; Dobrovolsky Yu. A. Health of world's population in the 20th century, M., 1968; Society and health of the person, under the editorship of G. I. Tsaregorodtsev, M., 1973; Petlenko V. P. Philosophical questions of the theory of pathology, M., 1971; Petrovsky B. V. Zdorovye of the people — the most important property of socialist society, M., 1971; Philosophical and social and hygienic aspects of the doctrine about health and diseases, under the editorship of G. I. Tsaregorodtsev, M., 1975.

V. A. Frolov.