HARTLAYN Holden (Hartline Haldan Keffer; sort. in 1903) — the American physiologist and the biophysicist, the member of National academy of Sciences
of the USA, the Nobel Prize laureate (1967).
In 1927 ended Jones's un-t of Hopkins in Baltimore where till
1929 worked in department of physiology. From 1929 to 1931 trained on physics and mathematics in high fur boots of the USA, and then Germany. In 1931 returned to the USA where started studying of an electrophysiology of an optic nerve and receptors of a retina. Since 1940 the graduated in a military academy, and from 1943 to 1949 professor of biophysics Pennsylvanian un-that. From 1949 to 1953 professor of biophysics and the head of department in un-those Jones of Hopkins. From 1953 to 1974 professor of biophysics Rock Feller un-that (New York).
Main scientific research of X. Hartlayna are devoted to studying of electrophysiologic and biophysical mechanisms of sight. It investigated activity of single fibers of an optic nerve and receptors of a retina of a crab; the analysis of excitement in single fibers of a retina of a frog is carried out and it is shown that the frequency of an impulsation of separate fibers depends on intensity of illumination of a retina, and activity of the whole nerve is total activity of single fibers. At the same time one of fibers answer with continuous electric impulses constant illumination of eyes, others — for the beginnings or the termination of the last (see Sight, the Optic nerve).
X. Hartlayn dealt also with problems of a scotopia. It managed to carry out intracellular record of excitement of single receptors of an eye of a mechekhvost (Limulus), to investigate effect of the braking interaction between the next receptors. Having studied «receptive fields» of an optic nerve, X. Hartlayn made the detailed card showing that ganglionic cells of a retina can exert the exciting and braking impact on the converging ways from many photoreceptors. X. Hartlayn together with R. Granit and J. Wald is conferred the Nobel Prize for researches of mechanisms of vision.
X. Hartlayn — the honorary member of many scientific about - century
of Works: The response of single optic nerve fibers of the vertebrate eye to illumination of the retina, Amer. J. Physiol., v. 121, p. 400, 1938; The effects of spatial summation in the retina on excitation of the fibers of the optic nerve, ibid., v. 130, p. 700, 1940; Inhibitory interaction of receptor units in the eye of Limulus, J. gen. Physiol., v. 40, p. 357, 1957 (sovm. with Ratliff F.); Visual receptors and retinae interaction, in book: Les prix Nobel en 1967, p. 242, Stockholm, 1968.
Bibliography: Haldan Keffer Hartline,
in book: Les prix Nobel en 1967, p. 120, Stockholm, 1968; Ratliff F. Haldan Keffer Hartline, Science, v. 158, p. 468, 1967. E. L. Golubeva.