HARDWARE PRODUCTION — production of metal products (hardware) — bolts, screws, screws, nuts, nails, crutches, steel ropes, a grid, the bimetallic wire having universal use. The m of the item includes processes of melting and hire of metals, etching, drawing, calibration, heat treatment of a wire, hot and cold stamping, drawing electrodeposits.
Melting and hire of metals in L. S. are followed by considerable heat releases therefore the air temperature of workshops is subject to sharp fluctuations that reflects adversely on the state of health of workers. During the etching of hire in air of workrooms vapors of acids rendering irritant action on mucous membranes of eyes and upper respiratory tracts are emitted. Drawing — drawing of a wire through hard-alloy dies of required diameter — is followed by high temperature of air in a working zone, intensive noise (see), existence in air dust (see) or aerosol of oil.
Working conditions in thermal and hot forge and forming departments of L. S. (see. Hot workshops , Forge and press production ) depend on a type of heating: they are unsatisfactory at use of solid and liquid fuel and considerably improve during the electroheating, use of the TVCh installations, natural gas. At hot-stamping intensive heat releases, high content of carbon monoxide, sulphurous anhydride, hydrocarbons, dust, intensive noise are noted. Processes of cold disembarkation (stamping) are characterized by a noise background, allocation of an aerosol of oil and sodium nitrite, and also alkali in small concentration.
Production of metal ropes by pryadevyyushchy and kanatovyyushchy cars is followed by noise to 100 dB.
Production traumatism (see) — thermal and corrosive burns, injuries of the person, an eye, fingers of hands (punctures, cuts, microtraumas), captures by mechanisms of extremities and clothes, punctures of feet — the most important a gigabyte. a problem in L. S. It occurs at press operators, heat-treaters, wiredrawers, etchers, gvozdilshchik, working rope and net cars, at auxiliary workers. The most frequent occupational disease — neuritis of an acoustical nerve (see. Eighth cranial nerve ). Incidence with temporary disability in L. S. is higher, than in general on the industries of mechanical engineering.
Actions for improvement of working conditions at etching processes consist in use of additives (including inhibitors of acid corrosion), respect for technology and the mode of etching, the device of effective vent systems, providing workers with acid resisting overalls. At processes of drawing the most important action in the field of labor protection is mechanization of movement of raw materials and finished goods that promotes elimination of hard physical work and manual operations. Replacement of powder of lime with liquid glass eliminates a pylevydeleniye. The equipment of drawing camps catchers of a wire sharply reduces danger of traumatism.
At heat treatment processes for normalization of working conditions transfer of furnaces into gas fuel or electroheating, replacement of lead tempering alkaline or selitrenny, heat insulation of heated surfaces of the equipment, the device of the local exhaust ventilation, mechanization of transport operations is decisive.
Radical improvement of working conditions at hot-stamping is promoted by replacement of solid and liquid fuel gaseous or elekgronagrevy, replacement with its cold disembarkation where it is allowed by technology. In workshops of cold stamping the industrial automation with observance of necessary ergonomic requirements and allocation of the pressure equipment on certain sites for localization of noise and elimination of the general is effective vibrations (see).
In all workshops and on all sites it is necessary to carry out measures for protection working from impact of intensive noise according to GOST SSBT 12.1.003—76. In view of a large number of the works demanding intense visual control, and potential danger of traumatism special value the organization rational artificial and natural has lighting (see). Etchers, film distributors and founders, workers of heat-treatment shops, and also working in the conditions of impact of intensive production noise are subject to periodic medical examinations.
Bibliography Zlotnikov S. L., Kazakevich P. and Mikhaylova V. L. The accident prevention and industrial hygiene in forge press shops, M., 1974, bibliogr.; Silvering - N y y L. A. Hygienic assessment of modern technological processes of quantity production of a hardware, Gigabyte. work and the prof. having got sick., No. 7, page 15, 1962, bibliogr.; The reference book on occupational health, under the editorship of B. D. Karpov and V. E. Kovshilo, page 261, 277, L., 1979; Thielen R. G. Nuisances professionnelles chez les decri-queurs et les ebavureurs dans l’industrie siderurgique, Arch. Mai. prof., t. 32, p. 303, 19 71.
L. A. Serebryany.