From Big Medical Encyclopedia

HANDBALL (synonym handball) — team game, the purpose cover — to throw with hands a ball in gate of the opponent. The game is held in halls. Duration of a game for men and young men — 60 min., for women and girls — 50 min., for boys of 9 — 12 years and girls of 13 — 14 years — 30 min. A game has two periods with a 10-minute break.

A variety of techniques, coordination complexity of movements, frequent change of intensity of muscle performance increase force and mobility of nervous processes, develop dexterity, force, speed, endurance, flexibility.

Well trained handballers have an average heart rate at rest 52 blows in 1 min. with an arterial pressure of 115/65 mm of mercury.; the minute volume of breath is 8 — 9 l with a frequency of 10 — 12 of 1 min. and the respiratory volume of 800 ml. During the trainings and competitions heart rate reaches 180 — 200 blows in 1 min., the minute volume of breath of 130 l at the respiration rate equal 60, and the respiratory volume of 2,0 — 2,5 l. Loses of weight at the same time within 2,5 — 3 kg. The maximum oxygen consumption of 5,2 l/min [58 ml on 1 kg of the weight (weight) in 1 min.].

Contraindications to R.'s occupation of m are diseases of c. N of page, cardiovascular, respiratory systems, musculoskeletal system, reduced visual acuity, squint. Features of a game allow to be engaged in it from 9 to 35 years.

Special trainings and the admission to competitions are resolved from 11 years.

Profound medical control is carried out twice a year (see. Medical control ). During the monitoring and self-checking it is necessary to consider health, a dream, appetite, working capacity, to register pulse, weight, vital capacity of lungs, to carry out dynamometry.

The most typical injuries — bruises, damages of the copular device of extremities, stretchings and ruptures of muscles, sinews, fastion, fractures of bones, dislocations. Compliance of loading and mode of a training of degree of functional readiness of athletes is important for the prevention of injuries. An essential role is also played by carrying out effective warm-up, use of the corresponding sports equipment and implementation of hygienic requirements to the place of occupations.

The game hall shall have lighting not less than 50 lx, ventilation, air temperature 18 — 22 °. The covering of a floor in the hall shall not be slippery, wet. Recommend cotton clothes (pants, t-shirts), special footwear — gym shoes on a rubber sole.

See also Games in physical culture and sport .

Bibliography: Latyshkev of the p L. A. Technical and tactical training of handballers, Kiev, 1981.

L. Ya. Evgenyeva.