HALOWAX, occupational health — the halowaxes containing three or more chlorine atoms on one molecule of naphthalene (C 10 H 5 Cl 3 ). Are toxic for the person. On physical. to properties G. — solid translucent matter (density 1,5 — 1,7). Depending on a grade can have white, yellowish, brown, dark green or dark brown color.
Temperature of melting is various for different mixes G. and temperature of boiling from 250 to 370 ° fluctuates from 80 to 130 °. Vapors of halowaxes are quickly condensed. Halowaxes apply at production of condensers, transformers, models at precision molding, coils and spools to the textile industry, replace with them wax, pitch and rubber in cable production. It is applied to impregnation of paper and fabrics for the purpose of giving of fire resistance to them. Usually use the mixes of halowaxes consisting of naphthalene trichloride with small impurity tetra-and naphthalene pentachloride.
To professional vrednost G.'s productions refer receipt in air of workrooms of chlorine, hydrogen chloride and halowaxes, specific to G.'s production, to-rye can contaminate the equipment, clothes and integuments of workers. Sorption of vapors of halowaxes plaster of walls of production placings with their subsequent desorption in air of rooms is possible. The reason of air pollution by halowaxes — disturbance of tightness of the equipment, the sublimation of naphthalene and naphthalene chloride involving disturbance of technological process, existence of manual operations (cleaning of devices), etc.
The hl comes to a human body of G. obr. with inhaled air. G.'s hit with saliva and food in a stomach and its absorption through skin is possible. G.'s toxicity is defined by extent of chlorination of naftalin. High-halowaxes are more toxic. Addition in them as solvent of perchloromethane considerably increases toxicity of halowaxes. Continuous influence of G. causes toxic hepatitis, sometimes from the outcome in subacute or acute yellow dystrophy (see. Toxic dystrophy of a liver ). Acute poisonings of G. are improbable owing to a small volatility of naphthalene chlorides. It is experimentally proved that changes of a liver and skin at intoxication halowaxes are result of all-toxic action. Patomorfol. the research of bodies of mice and rats showed the most expressed changes in a liver (necrobiotic fatty dystrophy, swelling and a hyperplasia of reticuloendothelial elements); at biochemical, researches availability of naphthalene in a liver, kidneys, lungs, etc. is revealed. Maximum allowable concentration of vapors of the highest halowaxes — 0,5 mg/m 3 .
The main actions for prevention of the prof. of intoxications are: sealing of the equipment, communications and use of anticorrosive materials at their production; mechanization of processes of receiving and use of naphthalene chlorides; prevention of disturbances of technological process and emergencies; device of effective local exhaust mechanical ventilation. The works (impregnation of products, their drying, etc.) connected with heating and G.'s melting are carried out in hoods. Give an induced air to a working zone. Rooms, in to-rykh receive or apply G., isolate from adjacent rooms. Great attention shall be paid to finishing of walls, a ceiling, floor. Use of a metlakhsky tile for floors and finishing of high panels of walls for the purpose of the prevention of sorption of vapors is recommended. Apply soap solutions to daily cleaning of the rooms contaminated by G., using the soap containing 10% of turpentine.
Measures of personal hygiene come down to daily shift of strongly starched overalls (cotton overalls, linen, kerchiefs, etc.), to separate storage of house clothes and overalls. It is forbidden to take out overalls and linen, in Krom worked with G., from the industrial enterprise. Household rooms shall be equipped as the sanitary inspection room (see the Sanitary inspection room). At household rooms wash basins with hot water and soap are equipped. Individual protection equipment from vapors G. is the filtering gas mask of brand «A» (see. Gas masks ), from dust — respirators (see). It is recommended to apply soap or a poverkhnostnoaktivny cleaner of OP to processing of integuments. For the purpose of the prevention of photodermatites in the spring and in the summer after a shower use 5% salolovy ointment for greasing of open parts of a body. For protection of face skin, a neck and hands various protective pastes are recommended (Hiot-6, Selissky), to-rye put daily before work and during breaks (see. Pastes protective ). The workers going to work with G. undergo preliminary medical examination. As a contraindication to employment serve hepatitises, nephrites, diseases of skin. Periodic medical examinations shall be carried out by the dermatologist once in 3 months, other specialists — once in 6 months (see. Medical examination ).
Bibliography: Arkhipov A. S. both Sorinson N. S. Savol and halowax, Bitter, 1951; Harmful substances in the industry, under the editorship of N. V. Lazarev, t. 1, page 275, L., 1971; Kapkayev E. A. To the characteristic of halowax as industrial poison, the Gigabyte. and dignity., No. 11, page 79, 1957; Occupational diseases, under the editorship of A. A. Letavet, etc., page 308, M., 19 73; Shakhnovskaya F. B. To toxicology of halowaxes, Pharm, and toksikol., t. 16, No. 2, page 43, 1953.
V. S. Filatova.