HALLE Robert

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

HALLE Robert (Holley Robert William, sort. in 1922) — the American biochemist, the member of National academy of Sciences of the USA, the American academy of arts and sciences, the Nobel Prize laureate (1968).

In 1942 graduated from yir-t of the State of Illinois majoring in organic chemistry and in 1947 a postgraduate study in Kornellskom un-those. In 1948 — 1964 taught un-those in Kornellskom, and at the same time worked in a number of scientific divisions un-that in New York: at the experimental agricultural station, in laboratory of plants, soils and food, at department of biochemistry and molecular biology. From 1965 to 1966 professor, the head of department of biochemistry and molecular biology un-that. Since 1966 the permanent member of council Ying-that biological researches in California works in Ying-those biological researches of Salk Institute of Biological Studies, since 1968.

The first works of R. Halle were devoted to researches in the field of chemistry of penicillin, peptides and plant hormones. Since the end of the 50th he began to be engaged in studying of a chemical structure of nucleic acids. R. Halle developed methods of release of pure drugs individual transport ribonucleic to - t (see RNA) that formed a basis for definition of their chemical structure. In 1963 it obtained data on chemical structure of several individual acceptor RNA. Modifying methods of zymolysis of molecule RNA on specific fragments and analyzing structure of the received fragments, R. Halle with employees deciphered structure alanine acceptor RNA yeast (1965). R. Halle's works formed a basis for the subsequent researches of primary and secondary structure acceptor RNA, for development of modern ideas of the mechanism of synthesis of protein.

The Nobel Prize is conferred together with G. Korana and M. Nirenber-g for interpretation of a genetic code and the mechanism of protein synthesis.

Works: Structure of a ribonucleic acid, Science, v. 147, p. 1462, 1965 (sovm. with other); The nucleotide sequence of a nucleic acid, in book: The molecular basis of life, ed. by R. H. Haynes a. P. C. Hanawalt, p. 72, San Francisco — L., 1968.

Bibliography: B of an e in A. A. Nobel laureates of 1968 on physiology and medicine, the Nature, No. 3, page 60, 1969; Nobel prizes for medicine, 1968, Nature (Lond.), v. 220, p. 324, 1968. O. V. Podobed.