From Big Medical Encyclopedia

HAITI, the Republic of Haiti — the state in West Indies, borrows zap. a part of the lake of Haiti and nearby islands in group of Big Antilles islands. The territory — 27,8 thousand km 2 . The population — 4,5 million people (1975). The capital — Port-au-Prince (459 thousand zhit., 1971). Ofits. language — French. The head of state and the governments — the president. In the country the mode of rigid terror is set, activity of the democratic organizations is prohibited. G.'s relief mountainous. Climate tropical. Average monthly t ° 22 — 28 °. An annual amount of precipitation of 500 — 2000 mm, a maximum — in the spring and in the fall.

Haiti. At the left below — a geographical location (it is specified by an arrow) in West Indies.

— developing country, nearly 85% of the amateur population 2/3 pages are engaged in agriculture, - x. lands belongs to landowners-latifundists and the companies of the USA. Fundamentals of agriculture — production of coffee, an agave, sugarcane. The industry is developed extremely poorly.

90% of the Haitians — Blacks, other population are preferential mulattos. Vital rates (for 1000 zhit.) in 1972: birth rate — 27,1, the general mortality — 13,6, a natural increase — 13,5, child mortality — 146,5 on 1000 live-born. Average life expectancy — 44,5 years.

In pathology of the population infectious and parasitic diseases have big specific weight. Malaria, tuberculosis, helminthoses are widespread, went. - kish. infections, leprosy, malignant anthrax, fever of a dengue, avitaminosis. Venereal diseases (in 1975 445 fresh cases of syphilis and 179 cases of gonorrhea are registered) are frequent.

Management of health care is performed by the Department of health care and population consisting of a number of departments and services, including health care of a family, the general health care, preventive services, medical researches, special national programs, etc. In each of departments of the country there is a doctor administrator responsible for activity of all medical institutions of department. In all areas of department there is a center of health care for rendering both the hospital, and extra hospital help and the center of health care for rendering only an ambulatory care, and also a number of clinics.

In 1973 in Haiti 60 hospitals on 3868 beds, including state functioned. The ambulatory care was given in policlinics at 11 hospitals, 12 centers of health care and 142 clinics. Business of protection of motherhood and the childhood is badly put, medical aid at childbirth was only 10,1% of women (1970).

In G. (1973) 522 doctors worked (1 doctor on 8506 zhit.), 119 dentists, 34 midwifes, 642 nurses, 83 laboratory assistants, 20 X-ray technicians, 3rd dignity. engineer, 147th dignity. inspectors.

In un-those Port-au-Prince are available medical, pharm, and dental surgery f-you, in the cities of Port-au-Prince, Le-Que and Kap-Aityen — schools on training of nurses with a three-year course. In 1967/68 academic year in the country 46 doctors, 2 dentists and 54 nurses were trained. The state budget of health care in 1970 made 15% of the national budget.

Bibliography: Draft of the program budget for 1976 and 1977 financial years, Ofits. documents of WHO No. 220, page 530, Geneva, WHO, 1975; Countries of the world, Short political and economic reference book, page 303, M., 1974; Demographic yearbook 1971, p. 126, N. Y., 1972; Fifth report on the World Health Situation (1969 — 1972), pt 1 — 2, Geneva, WHO, 1974.

A.S. Khromov.