HABITABILITY

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

HABITABILITY — set of ekologo-hygienic conditions of the environment taking into account a possibility of adaptation of the person to them; the problem of providing opportunities of stay and activity of the person in various constructions and objects of the equipment which arose during an era of a scientific and technological revolution.

Ekologo-gigiyenichesky conditions include impact on the person of factors of the habitat — the atmosphere, water, the soil, flora, fauna, various klimatogeografichesky conditions, effects of production activity of the person, an urbanization, etc.

Scientific and technical progress in the last decades was followed by creation of new technical systems and complexes, during the functioning to-rykh the person (crew, service personnel) is influenced by various physical, volumetric, biological, psychological and other factors, to-rye under certain conditions can be extreme. The temperature drops, high accelerations, noise, vibration ionizing and other radiations, content in the air environment of various toxic products, etc. belong to the specified factors. Ensuring active life activity of the person provides development of certain requirements to technical objects in these conditions during their creation, standards of the habitat, special life support systems. Life support systems are created in objects of the space equipment and cabins of aircraft (see. Life support , Cabins of aircraft ). Relevant requirements are developed to conditions of dwelling of the person by the ships (including underwater), objects of military equipment, atomic constructions, in extreme conditions of the Arctic and Antarctic, during the work on nuclear power plants, etc. (see. Acclimatization , Arctic , Air conditioning , nuclear reactors , Regeneration of air , person car System , Scuba diving ).

Standards of the habitat, the rational modes of work at the industrial enterprises having defined professional harm (see are developed. Maximum allowable concentrations , and also articles devoted to separate types of production — Ore mining industry , Hot workshops , Chemical industry etc.).

Character biol, actions of separate types of vrednost and their rationing is defined (see. Vibration , Motion desease , Acceleration , Noise etc.).

Scientific development of a problem O. is carried out in a complex, joint efforts of hygienists, physiologists, engineers and other specialists.

See also Human engineering , Extreme states .



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