GUYANA, the Co-operative Republic of Guyana — the state on S.-V. of South America. The territory — 215 thousand km 2 . The population — 790 thousand people (1975). The capital — Georgetown (100 thousand zhit., 1970). Ofits. language — English. Is a part of the Commonwealth (it is shaven.).
Till 1966 — colony of Great Britain (Guiana it is shaven.). In 1970 it is proclaimed the republic. The head of state — the president.
Village and C.-B. of the country are occupied with the boggy lowland, the center and BB. — tableland. The most part of the territory of G. is covered with the woods with valuable breeds of trees. Climate hot and wet. Rainfall of 2230 mm a year. In Georgetown average monthly t ° 26 — 28 °.
— developing country. The basis of the economy — agriculture and extraction of mineral raw materials (generally bauxites). In economy the foreign capital, hl dominates. obr. Great Britain, USA and Canada. The sugarcane, rice, coffee, cocoa, a citrus, pineapples are grown up. The pasturable livestock production is developed.
51% of the population of G. — natives of India, 43% — descendants of the African slaves (Blacks and mulattos). Vital rates in 1969 (on 1000 people): birth rate — 29,4, the general mortality — 6,8, a natural increase — 22,6. Child mortality — 42,8 on 1000 live-born. Average life expectancy — 95,4 years (1970). Infectious and parasitic diseases (22,6% of all cases of death) were the main reasons for death in 1969. From infectious diseases the same year a typhoid (154 cases in 1975), tuberculosis, malaria, measles and chicken pox most often were registered.
Medical - a dignity. service of the population will be organized by Min-vom of health care. The country is divided in medical - a dignity. the relation on 5 districts, to-rye are divided into the medical areas headed by the doctors providing to lay down. - professional, service of the population.
In 1973 in G. there were 43 hospitals on 3987 beds, from them 2809 beds, including public institutions. Hospitals and beds in them were distributed as follows: 14 general hospitals (1878 beds), tubercular hospital (218 beds), psychiatric (580 beds), 21 rural hospitals (351 beds), leper colony (224 beds), the rehabilitation and physiotherapeutic centers (86 beds), the house for recovering (40 beds). Extra hospital help in 1970 was given in 3 out-patient departments of general hospitals, 21 regional and private hospitals, 39 centers of health care and 26 clinics. There are 80 centers of health protection of mother and the child.
In 1973 in G. 212 doctors (1 doctor for 3585 people), from them 94 — in the public medical institutions, 21 dentists, 6 druggists, the 2nd dignity worked. engineer; 781 nurse and midwife, 96th dignity. inspectors, 41 technicians-laboratory assistants and 16 X-ray technicians. There are no highest medical educational institutions in G. Doctors are trained by medical f-t of the West Indian university college in Kingston (Jamaica). There are 4 schools on training of nurses with a 3-year course and one biennial obstetric school. In 1969/70 uch. to year 63 nurses and 18 midwifes were trained. The budget of health care of G. in 1970 made 18,1% of the state budget.
Bibliography: The fourth review of a condition of health care in the world (1965 — 1968), page 183, Geneva, WHO, 1973.
E. V. Galakhov.